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Keywords: hospital management system, doctor, patient, admin
1.1 Background of the study
Hospitals are key institutions and there is need for efficient service delivery in the hospital as good health is paramount to a happy society. As a result of this there is need for a system that will enable hospital management in making effective and efficient decision (Oparah, 2006). Recently, efforts are continuously being made in designing and constructing a user friendly and reliable database system to satisfy hospital or medical management system (Abdullahi, 2004; James and Cimino, 2006).
On the other hand, many hospitals and medical centers are still adopting the manual system of hospital management. These methods of medical management system have continued to pose a lot of setbacks and problems to medical practitioners, nurses, patients and other staff in both government and private hospitals.
Hospital is an organization that mobilizes the skills and efforts of a widely divergent group of professionals, semi-professionals, professional’s personnel, to provide highly personalized personnel services to patients (A.K malhotra, 2009).World health Organization (WHO) has defined hospital as an integral part of social and medical organization that provides the complete curative and preventive health care and treatment to people. Hospitals are the focal points of education for the health professionals and clinical research necessary for advancement of medicine. Thus, the hospital is one of the most complexes of all administrative organizations. The main purpose of the hospital is to provide adequate care and treatment to the people. Various operational works that are done in a hospital include: recording information about the Patients, generating bill, recording information related to diagnosis given to Patients, Keeping record of the Immunization provided to patient, Keeping information about various diseases and medicines available to cure them etc (Mansi Chitkara, 2010). All these works are done in most hospitals on papers. The need for proper management of the health sector leads to the creation of an electronic means of keeping records, administering discharge, querying of data, prescription helper and also good accountability. Information technology in general enables intra organizational networking that facilitates effective information flow within the various units of a firm (Ayodele, 2011). The application of information technology in health care is unceasingly evolving as the quality of patient care in contemporary times seems to depend on the timely acquisition and processing of clinical information related to the patient. The hospital management system (HMS) comprises a computerized web based application for record keeping, tracking and prescriptions with monitoring. HMS can manage multiple users of the system and can have the track of the right assigned to them. It makes sure that all the users function with the system as per the rights assigned to them and they can get their work done in efficient manner. A good management system should allow for input and output by providing an objective for recording and aggregation information. It should be able to quickly collect and edit data, summarize results, and adjust as well as correct errors promptly (Waban Charles, 2007). According to Waban Charles, 2007 designs HMS that Retrieve Information from the database as quickly as one searches on the screen and authenticate the users with the access control facility to prevent unauthorized users from accessing the data but does not include exporting of Data (History) on the database to appear in various formats (PDF, CSV, TXT). F.Droma, 2009 designs various HMS modules but the system is not designed to manage the affairs of the hospital but only built for the Patient Health Records. This paper provides solution to the existing problems of the hospital. The design improves the accuracy of medical records and efficient retrieval and usage of medical records.
Before computerized Hospital Management System came into practice, it was difficult to keep proper records of the daily activities of hospitals, patient information, maintenance schedule of equipments in the hospital, and how funds are being allocated and used. This resulted in waste of money, time and manpower. Hospital Management System is an information management system designed to help manage the various aspects of a hospital (administrative, clinical and financial). It helps in monitoring and controlling the hospital’s daily transactions, as well as the hospital’s performance. It also helps to address the critical requirements of the hospital. Hospital Management System enables access to the right information and automation of complex task, thereby allowing staff to spend more time caring for patients. Hospital Management System is custom built to meet the specific requirements of the medium and large size hospitals across the globe (Olusanya, Elegbede, and Ogunseye, 2015).
Sequel to what other people have been saying and writing about the use of computers in establishments, it is still necessary to bring the suggestions and opinion of these people to our enormous readers. If against this background that this chapter is set aside for analyzing the different vies of these computers users and experts who have previously done a work on the same project topic. The design and implementation of a computerized hospital space management information system.
The computer based information system is of great importance to the growth and survival of the various sectors of the economy because according to JOHNSON B. A. (2003) computers have large storage capacity and besides, the overall cost of computerization is in general less than manual process cost for large jobs.
It should be noted that the main purpose of computerization irrespective of the application is to process data quickly, efficiently and effectively so that information kept is timely, meaningful and accurate.
Timeless is essential in the field of HEALTH SERVICES, for instance, Anuken, K (1990) confirmed that as work load in medical laboratory increase day-by-day due to improved method of diagnosis, the time-lag between request and report of analysis will definitely increase, thereby making it cumbersome to the clerical system to cope up with the increase in the area of record keeping which may include features like sex, age record number, address and diagnosis. It may be programmed in a computer. This will conveniently aid other people who may need the same data about such patient to be retrieved. If in case a note on diagnosis is written by a Doctor and another, Doctor wants to know the condition of particular patient, this of course will cause the attending Doctor to start all over again but if it is programmed, the safety is granted as it is permanently in the storage devices.
In the light of the above, Shannon M.D (1974) Opted that the computerization of records should be maintained in hospital management to help the updating, storage, and processing the records. From the author’s point of view, the updating of the records would be of immediate help in the visiting Doctor making him to know where and how to start treatment of the patient.
In another development, some authors are not of the view that computers should be used owing to the disadvantages ranging from the loss of job by non-expert to incomplete record keeping since all these records cannot be found at once. Cornelius, (1989) disapproved the process of computerization of medical record management system. According to him, it would require summarizing all the old records which may lead to incomplete computerization of the record. When the required records are not to complete, proper, and efficient management of such an organization cannot be done. But seen to nullify his views bearing in mind that no technology or development is without at least a minute disadvantage but regarding the enormous gains that accrue from such computerized and should be encourage.
Weed (1980) stated that the computerization of medical records management information system aids physician by identifying the patient’s problems and then out lining the plan for a cause of treatment of the specified problem. To the author’s view a better organized, more rational and more consistent way of gathering medical records about the patient’s cline problems is not available and this will enable the Doctor to know how to prescribe drugs to the patients.
OSCAR, E. (1986) in this own contribution say that if computer should last longer, a budget should be made for that, the author’s stresses that for only organization to progress, the introduction of computer or rather computerization should be welcomed and considered to services of the computer in any given task, budgeting for it, in all the establishment especially Hospital should not be left out.
For perfection to be actualized, computers should be put in place of human brain. Adental (1998) stated the computerization actually has taken the whole world by storm because of the relief if offers human brains as well as the greater efficiency that it has given to the performance of many activities. Hospitals should not be an exception introduction / Application of computers in Hospital management information system saves, time.
Gallon Nenno (1985) disclosed that computerized management information system in record keeping allows trained medical professional to spend less time practicing medicine.
He further stated that “computers are also assisting in the maintenance of patient laboratory records and Hospitals or clinics”. A specimen arrive to be tested, specific test data can be input into computer and once the testing has been completed, the appropriate nurse’s station. Thus, keeping a patient’s records accurate, up-date and readily available. Many people think that by the introduction of computer to different sectors of the economy like pay roll-unit, medical record department etc. will make them redumdate in their jobs. For instance, AVORN, J. (1974) argued that this process is not accepted because some doctors may not be happy about the fact that computers are being programmed and protocols are being used in ways that will permit trained para- medical personnel to perform the task exclusively meant for them. This misconception about my computer should be disregard. Rather, it will help in processing their structural data leaving the structured ones, structured data therefore, are data under standardized rules.
Ezeano A.N. (1997) Stated that systems that computerized should be well guarded and adequate security strategy and control measures instituted to avoid malicious and disgruntled users access to the computer files, room and system. He further stated that this security strategy could be inform of protection against damage and that it could be achieved through three generation of files dumping techniques instituted to generate files store on magnetic tape or disk.
1.2 Review of hospital system
Online hospital management system: A unique cloud based hospital management system for both patients and hospital stuff (Doctors, Admin). The primary target of this design is to make hospital experience better than we currently have. Hospital is a place where no one willingly wants to visit but there are times when we need to. The old system of hospitals are not very user friendly. The first big stem is waiting in the queue for long hours. There are lots of other problems that make your hospital experience bad. Our main focus is to make people’s life easier in the hour of need. We are working to design such a system that will reduce a lot of paperwork and save people’s time. Existing software: You will find hospital management system software in various hospitals in different country. They have great features to help the hospital but that does not allow the patients to manage their own data. This is what gave us the initial motivation to build a system where the system will work for all. Let’s discuss about the system in details and see how it will help us. There are no such things that comes out without any limitations but we focused to overcome the best we could do. Our main focus was to determine the features for the Management (Admin and Doctor). They are the large community of this system and they deserve to get the most out of this system. There is no doubt that our existing systems does not provide us the facility to check for our information related to our hospital documents and other important documents for example prescriptions and test reports. If this documents are close to us then we can at least be in some peace. We no longer have to worry about carrying those reports and of course it will help us the best in terms of losing those precious documents and get into trouble. The relief will be huge and so will be the benefit. Hopefully this will give us the benefit that we are expecting.
1.3 Objectives of the project
The main objective of this project is to investigate and design a computer based medical services, capable of eradicating the above mentioned problems to be speeding up the processing, storing and retrieval of information which greatly assist medical personnel in the performance of their duties. Again, it will provide a means to ease medical laboratory statistics and improve decision making by reducing processing time, as well as reducing the communication gap between the Doctors and other staff still involved in the patient medical care. It will also reduce human errors to the barest minimum and improve confidentiality of files. In summary, the objective is to set an efficient medical database for the advancement of the medical research and analysis.
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