p style=”text-align: justify”>
The management and booking of Rooms in hotels is a tedious and complicated task especially if it is done manually. Keeping track of large customers and all their details requires an inordinate space for file cabinets, not to mention the time the hotel administrator would spend going back and forth to file cabinets so as to look up each customer’s information. This is why a good hotel reservation system is needed to make this task as easy as possible.
This research work shows how the noted complicated human task can be solved by using a database Management System together with scripting and programming languages like Html and PHP respectively as the key tools in the development of a hotel reservation System. The system was developed using the object-oriented software development approach which includes the use of object-oriented analysis, object- oriented design and object-oriented programming. This was done so that the developed software can be maintainable, reliable and scalable.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The advances in mobile technology and availability of broadband have made it easier to search for a hotel and book through an online reservation system (Karolina, 2003). Although mobile applications are unlikely to revolutionize a hotels’ reservation system to the same extent that the internet did, it may have an impact on hotel revenue management and the concept of implementing price structures. An effective reservation system has to employ the latest technology to allow hoteliers to gain a competitive advantage over their rivals and remain at the forefront of emerging trends. Hotels must therefore adapt their websites to respond to this development by adopting the use of booking engines and developing marketing strategies to include mobile technology.
This will help hoteliers to control all reservations that come from different sources in a single control system, distribute rooms favorably to different online channels and analyze the contribution each sales channel provides to revenue, identifying the most efficient ones.
Reservation is the most important part of any hotel system, this process should be efficient so it can serve the commercial goals of the hotel. The most important entity in the reservation process is the rooms, reserving rooms in a hotel should be dynamic, and the whole process should be done in an effective way to maximize the hotel profits (Safarini O, 2011). There are usually two types of customers in the hotel; individual customers and group customers, and the person who is responsible for reservation is the front office manager. Group customers have higher priority over individual customers in high season, because group customers are more stable. So the front office manager takes decisions about the reservation, these decisions is always supported by a computerized system. This system provides many tools that the front office manager could use in taking his decision for allocating rooms and reserve for groups and taking right decisions.
While global economic integration make the hotel industry market wider, it also make the hotel industry facing increasingly fierce competition and rising customer expectations, forcing the insider to expand their customers constantly, improve service quality, lower administrative costs and improve customer satisfaction with new ways to enhance the hotel’s core competence. Which is one of the effective means of mass application of advanced information technology, especially with the constant deepening of information, change hospitality industry competition and management models which in the traditional sense, in order to win new competitive advantages. Leading hotels in the world have been falling over themselves to explore, implement and promote integrated hotel management information. Modern hotel is the integration of consumer sites including rooms, catering facilities, business culture, and a variety of other services. Due to a huge membership and service projects, so naturally, it’s the amount of carried in its management, in order to improve work efficiency, reduce operating costs, improve service quality and management levels, promote economic efficiency, we must use the computers to progress modern information management. The great development of modern computer technology, provide a favourable opportunity for hotel management to change (Guirong Guo and Yan Lu, 2014).
White Apple Hotel is the best in terms of providing services to its numerous quests. It good facilities like:
1. Air-conditioned Rooms
2. Swimming Pool
3. Playing Ground
4. Car Hire
5. Maximum Security
The hotel is presently operating manually in their data processing; this involves the use of people, pens and papers in record keeping.
CHAIRMAN/CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO)
ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CHIEF CHEF CLERK
OFFICER SUPERVISOR CHEF SECURITY
ADMIN RECEPTIONIST SECRITY
OFFICE COOK WAITERS STAFF
LAUNDER STORE HOUSE TECHNICIANS
MEN KEEPERS KEEPERS
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Sales and services are the fundamental tools in any business organization the profit and loss of any business depends on detailed information on sales and services made to aid in decision making and implementation, if accountability is not checked, then the business is sure to collapse, as a result in an any retail and hospitality business there is a need for a system that gives feedback to the management to aid decision making, this is where computerized hotel management system comes handy. We have too many problems associated with the manual system used in White Apple Hotel in Agege which include:
It takes more time to reserve room. So performance of the current system is slow.
Difficulty in handling data accurately, security of data, data lost and viewing by unauthorized person.
Retrieving information like reports and queries is very time consuming and almost impossible practicably if time is considered.
Searching records of individual guest or customer takes time. (Update, Delete, and Edit), these types of method are not accessible using the manual method.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This project focuses mainly in computerization of hotel management consequent upon numerous problem faced by manual handling of hotel information by White Apple Hotel in Agege. The objective of this study is thus to design and develop an online hotel management system that will:
To provide an easy way to automate information about the day to day activities of hotel such as record of attendance, computing of bill, tariff plan, as well as online facility for checking availability of rooms, ordering of food and also booking of the room and event hall.
Facilitate increase in productivity, decrease paperwork, and ability to analyze trouble spot.
To maintain security and secrecy of the hotel details.
To provide accurate data when it is required.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is primarily aimed at increasing efficiency in operation, reducing time and running cost, monitoring and the recording of the activities and total administration in hotel by introducing a web-based Hotel management system
Besides, this study is significance because its conclusions would be useful to:
1. Human Resources Managers in the hotel and restaurants business
2. The Federal, State and Local Government
3. Scholars in the field of hotel and restaurant management
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is to design an easy workable and reliable computerized hotel management system that will ease the activities of White Apple Hotel in Agege.
The limitations of this project include the following:
i. difficulties are being encounter in getting information and relevant fact about the existing system from the management and staffs in the hotel
ii. Cost of getting information from relevant journals, books and materials.
1.6. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Reservation: Arrangement made beforehand. An advance booking, e.g. of a seat, hotel room or ticket.
Management: This is described as the techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business or set of computer.
System : Set of computer component i.e. an assembly of computer hardware, software and peripherals functioning together.
Technology: It is the study techniques or process of mobilizing resources (such as information) for accomplishing objectives that benefit man and his environment.
Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting, receiving, storing and retrieving of data or several items put together to convey a desired message.
Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more computers together using a communication link.
Processing: To follow procedures; to deal with something according to an established procedure.
Computerized: To convert to computer – based systems. To install or start using a computer system to organize, control, or automate something.
Automation: The replacement of human workers by technology. A system in which a workplace or process has been converted to one that replaces or minimizes human labor with electronic or mechanical equipment. This is also system of manufacture to extend the capacity of machines to perform certain tasks formerly done by humans and to control sequences of operations without human intervention.
Software: A computer program (set of instructions) that directs a computer to perform some processing function or combination of functions.
Database: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured, organized for storage in a computer memory and designed for easy access by authorized for users. The data may be in the form of text, numbers, or encoded graphics.
Update: To change a system or a data file to make it more current. A software update usually adds relatively minor new features to a product or corrects errors (bugs) found after the program was released.
Password: A security measure used to restrict access to computer systems and sensitive files.
Login: Commands entered by users of a computer to gain access to a computer, computer network, computer program or other devices.
Logout: Steps a computer user takes to end his or her use of computer, computer network, computer program or other devices.
System Administrator: The person responsible for administering use of a multi user computer system, communications system or both. A system passwords, establishing security access levels, and allocating storage space, as well as being responsible for other tasks such as watching for unauthorized access and preventing virus from entering the system.
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment to produce information in a useful form.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
Chapter One explains the nitty-gritty of the project. It entails, the problem statement, objectives, significance, scope and limitation of the study. Also the important terms used in the project are defined.
Chapter Two fully explained the literature review of the project
Chapter Three of the project explains the system analysis and design which involves the methodology, analysis on the existing system, analysis on the proposed system and the design of the proposed system
Chapter Four deals with the system implementation and documentation.
Chapter Five detailed the summary, recommendation and conclusion
Hotel Management System operates a global online hotel reservation system for business and leisure travelers. To compete with the international e-marketplace, a great deal of attention should pay towards the optimization of user requirements to generate recommended hotel alternatives (S. Koolmanojwong, 2000).
In general sense, hotel management is the way of maintaining different activities of a hotel where a number of staffs are engaged to perform a number of these activities. At first let us take a glance to an ordinary hotel. For hiring a room in this type of hotel, the client needs to meet with the receptionist to collect the information of hotel facilities, after that he is to fill up the pro forma provided by the hotel authority, then he has to pay the defined amount of money and is offered room key for his/her rented room. He/she then finishes the formalities of a reception zone through these undergoing customs (M. J. O’Fallon and D. G. Rutherford, 2011).
But client always wants greater privacy and reliable security. So the author E. W. T. Ngai and F. K. T. Wat, 2003 developed an intelligent e-marketplace for the tourism based on fuzzy to serve the customers who wants to travel but has no idea about the accommodation. This system is global in the sense that anyone can use this to find the appropriate hotel according to his/her affordable means (G. Jingzhi, 2006). The details of the hotel management systems including the franchising, casinos, health Spas, payroll, credit, accounting control etc. are well described in (W. S. Gray and S. C. Liguori, 2002).
2.2 REVIEW OF RELATED WORK
Managing hotel service is very complex, hence it involves job of dealing with customers directly, purchases made by customers and room reservation. The manual hotel management is subdivided into section with each section having specific tasks. These tasks will however from time to time interact operationally to achieve organizational objectives. The mode of interaction consists of all characteristics of a typical manual system i.e. communication through verbal means, documents etc. This now leads to computerization of hotel management.
2.2.1 THE BROAD ENVIRONMENT FOR HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS
Opportunities are discovered when organizations begin to analyze the broad environment. Hoteliers and restaurateurs need to be cognizant of these factors and how they can drive change in the industry. Societal trends and technological trends should be critical points of interest for industry executives. From a societal perspective, organizations need to look at influences such as current hot topics, emerging attitudes, demographic shifts and new fads (Oparanma, 2009).
An example of societal trends that are impacting the hospitality industry would include the explosion of social networking. The trend has spanned across several demographic barriers ranging from Baby Boomers to the Millennials. There has additionally been an enormous effect on the hotel and restaurant industry. Bloggers have launched sites commenting about experiences that they have had and have made recommendations regarding the hotel or restaurant. Savvy industry executives understand the impact of these societal trends and focus efforts on establishing methodologies that can incorporate appropriate strategies to take advantage of these trends (Luebke, P. 2010).
Technological advances focus on the innovation of products, procedures, or services and how these developments can affect the hospitality industry (Yang, H. O. & Fu, H.W. 2007). For example, online reservations have grown exponentially over the years (Jin-zhao, W. & Jing, W. 2009).
The ability for industry executives to recognize the implications of this technological advance and develop strategies to take advantage of it is a critical component of strategy development. One of the premier online reservation Journal of Applied Business and Economics vol. 12(1) 2011 portals, OpenTable.com, boasted that in 2006 dining seats filled in restaurants through the use of their online reservation system exceeded one million (Ross, J.R. 2006).
This was a 65% increase from the previous year. Industry leaders, not acknowledging this technological advance and implementing it in some capacity would find their companies lagging in providing the appropriate customer service that their clientele would demand. Delay in the implementation of technological advances of this magnitude detracts from developing sustainability and competitive advantage (Yang, 2007; Jin-zhao, 2009 and Piccoli, 2008).
2.2.2 TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT IN THE RESTAURANT AND HOTEL INDUSTRY
A study conducted by Griffin, 1998 investigated how information (through data warehouses) was being utilized by restaurants/hotels, through the investigation of 12 of the largest hotel firms in the industry. In this study, only 7 of the 12 hotels were involved with data manipulation and 2 of the 7 had successfully developed and implemented their own data warehouses. Even though some of the hotels did not have data houses in place they were planning on the future development of this technology.
Most of the hotels in the study were, using information for support of strategic market analysis including, targeting new customers , fine tuning loyalty programs, sales analysis and conducting trend analysis. The study concluded that the hotels ability to collect, process, and access large amounts of data can help companies build a competitive advantage (Griffin, 1998).
A study conducted by Robinson, 1996 examined 62 companies who had successfully developed and implemented data warehouses. The financial impact shown was remarkable, return results; ROI equaling 401% and payback periods of approximately 2.31 years. One of the limitations discovered in Robinson, 1996 study was the expense involved with the development of this type of technology.
The author in O’Sullivan, 1996 had stated that the development of this type of data warehouse could cost in excess of 3 million dollars. The shear cost of development of this type technology will simply eliminate many smaller companies from participating in using this technology. A possible solution to the smaller firms could be purchasing information from a third party vendor on a decision-by-decision basis (Robinson, 1996 and O’Sullivan, 1996).
Hotel executives understand the importance and power of information, especially in troubled financial Journal of Applied Business and Economics vol. 12(1) 2011 75times. The development and use of information systems can additionally aid in hotels ability to develop concepts for new development, target better locations, identify potential franchisees, locate new labor markets, track employee performance, and, most importantly, track customer satisfaction (Jin-zhao, W. & Jing, W. 2009 and Griffin, 1998).
Magnini, 2003 have identified six essential factors that can help build successful marketing strategies through the use of data mining, a statistical technique that builds models from vast data bases. They include, (a) creating direct mail campaigns, (b) planning seasonal promotions, (c) planning the timing and placement of ad campaigns, (d) create personal advertisements, (e) define growing and emerging markets, (f) help in room reservations (wholesale and business customers). The factors are recommended to be used in conjunction with other statistical modelling tools and help build competitive advantage.
According to Siguaw, 1999 companies that effectively use technology will have the biggest effect on the customer satisfaction. The authors discussed three hotels which were awarded “best practices” for their technological innovations. These programs were specifically designed to improve service. These hotels were, The Balsams Grand Resort Hotel, Fairmont Copley Plaza, and the Ritz-Carlton Chicago.
At the Balsams Grand Resort Hotel in New Hampshire, technology was used to help develop a guest history log. The Balsams Grand used the guest history logs to capture customized information on the guests that had already made reservations at the hotel. The program was one of the first attempts to use an expert system model to gauge the needs and wants of the guests. Information was generated in regards to hotel inquiries, rooms, room types and numbers, special requests, times of year visited, any special requests, service personnel requested, etc. (Siguaw, 1999).
All of this information was stored into an individual’s personal file. The expert system then can anticipate almost any guest request. The success of this program has generated approximately 85% repeat business for the hotel. Additionally, new business has been generated from previous guest recommendations (Siguaw, 1999). Boston’s Fairmont Copley Plaza’s property management system was adopted and incorporated to expedite the concierge service at the hotel. Property management system enabled to get guest information such as newspaper preference, wake up time, overnight laundry service, restaurants with distance and directions from hotel as well as many other options. The result was an overwhelming, 90% satisfaction rate of the concierge service at this hotel, with an increased revisiting rate (Siguaw, 1999). At the Ritz Carlton in Chicago, customer demand of technical help with computers in the rooms was on the rise. With most guests making inquiries to the concierge office, both guests and employees were getting frustrated due to lack of technical knowledge. In response Ritz management created a new position, pulling from the hotel management information systems department, called the concierge.
With services being offered Monday through Friday, guests were able to obtain any technical support they need in conducting business requiring computers or computer technology. Customer service has improved overall, as well as the moral of the staff at the Ritz Carlton (Siguaw, 1999). In addition to improving customer service and satisfaction several hotels were given “Best Practices Awards” for information technology by implementing systems that helped in the increased efficiency of hotel operations. The Barbizon Hotel and Empire Hotel New York co-developed a computer database and hotel logbooks, phone calls for maintenance and record keeping of operations.
Hotel personnel from any house phone or PC throughout the hotel can access the expert system. The expert system automatically assigns tasks to the responsible employee or manager, and can even page them to make them aware of the task. In 15 minutes the system will re-page to remind, and if the task has not shown to be completed the system will automatically notify the appropriate manager. The system also facilitates management in $750,000 in 3 years through increased productivity, decreased paperwork, and ability to analyze trouble spots.
Directly linked to the hotels improvement in they have shared a 30% increase in repeat business (Siguaw, 1999). It is evident through the preceding literature that leveraging this type of Information can lead organizations toward better decision making and building and sustaining competitive hotel (Lee, 2003).
|Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN SOLUTIONS ENTERPRESE||https://abioliansolutions.com.ng|
|Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN ONLINE ACADEMY||https://onlineabiolian.com.ng|
|HOST Your Website @ LETHOSTNOW||https://lethostnow.com|
|Abiolian VTU Shop||https://abiolianshop.com.ng|
|LETHOSTNOW Jobs Freelance||https://jobs.lethostnow.com|
|Send Bulk SMS @ Abiolian Get Bulk SMS||https://getbulksms.com.ng|
|Get Final Year Project @ Project Gist International||http://projectgist.com.ng|