A detailed history of African Philosophy

32

Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

ABSTRACT

<
p style=”text-align: justify”>
ABSTRACT
The title of this research is to analyze a detailed history of African Philosophy, African philosophy is the philosophical discourse produced by indigenous Africans and their descendants, including African/Americans. African philosophers may be found in the various academic fields of philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology, moral philosophy, and political philosophy.
The main objective of this study is to analyze a detailed history of African philosophy. And the specific objective are to examine the Criteria, Methods, Schools, Movements and Periods of African Philosophy, to review of the question of African philosophy and examined the list of African philosophy. In the opinion of some philosophers, African philosophy, vis-à-vis Western philosophy, African philosophy depicts no more than a particularist exemplar of the universal (Western) philosophy. This research questions this assumption and demonstrates that, as a human undertaking, all philosophies remain context-dependent and culture oriented. A contrary view ignores the proper nature of philosophy. A new phenomenon confronts currently confronts all comers to contemporary African philosophy: an expansive vision of African philosophical discourse. Contemporary African philosophers attempt to rethink the initial problems that confronted their pioneer counterparts. Whereas the pioneer African philosophers disputed one another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in their bid to give a novel response to those problems, end up introducing innovative frameworks, entirely fresh perspectives, new themes and solutions. As a consequence, they face new challenges.
The method to be employed here in carrying out the research for the purpose of this research would be by means of secondary sources which is mainly documentary. Information would be sourced from textbooks, internet, journals written by jurist and public lectures delivered by various professors if there is any related to my project, studying them and drawing a conclusion and preferring recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
African philosophy is the philosophical discourse produced by indigenous Africans and their descendants, including African/Americans. African philosophers may be found in the various academic fields of philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology, moral philosophy, and political philosophy. One particular subject that many African philosophers have written about is that on the subject of freedom and what it means to be free or to experience wholeness (Mucale, 2015). Philosophy in Africa has a rich and varied history, some of which has been lost over time. One of the earliest known African philosophers was Ptahhotep, an ancient Egyptian philosopher. In the early and mid-twentieth century, anti-colonial movements had a tremendous effect on the development of a distinct African political philosophy that had resonance on both the continent and in the African diaspora. One well-known example of the economic philosophical works emerging from this period was the African socialist philosophy of Ujamaa propounded in Tanzania and other parts of Southeast Africa. These African political and economic philosophical developments also had a notable impact on the anti-colonial movements of many non-African peoples around the world.
This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early 1920s to date. In Plato’s Theaetetus, Socrates suggests that philosophy begins with wonder. Aristotle agreed. However, recent research shows that wonder may have different subsets. If that is the case, which specific subset of wonder inspired the beginning of the systematic African philosophy? In the history of Western philosophy, there is the one called thaumazein interpreted as awe and the other called miraculum interpreted as curiosity. History shows that these two subsets manifest in the African place as well, even during the pre-systematic era. However, there is now an idea appearing in recent African philosophy literature called onuma interpreted as frustration which is regarded as the subset of wonder that jump started the systematic African philosophy. In the 1920s, a host of Africans who went to study in the West were just returning. They had experienced terrible racism and discrimination while in the West. They were referred to as descendants of slaves; as people from the slave colony, as sub-humans, and so on. On return to their native lands, they met the same maltreatment by the colonial officials. ‘Frustrated’ by colonialism and racialism as well as the legacies of slavery, they were jolted onto the path of philosophy—African philosophy—by what can be called onuma.
These ugly episodes of slavery, colonialism and racialism not only shaped the world’s perception of Africa; they also instigated a form of intellectual revolt from the African intelligentsias. The frustration with the colonial order eventually led to angry questions and reactions out of which African philosophy emerged, first in the form of nationalisms and then in the form ideological theorizations. But the frustration was borne out of colonial caricature of Africa as culturally naïve, intellectually docile and rationally inept. This caricature was created by European scholars such as Kant, Hegel and, much later, Levy-Bruhl to name just a few. It was the reaction to this caricature that led some African scholars returning from the West into the type of philosophizing one may describe as systematic beginning with the identity of the African people, their place in history, and their contributions to civilization. To dethrone the colonially-built episteme became a ready attraction for African scholars’ vexed frustrations. Thus began the history of systematic African philosophy with the likes of Aime Cisaire, Leopold Senghor, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, William Abraham, John Mbiti and expatriates such as Placid Tempels, Janheinz Jahn and George James, to name a few.
African philosophy’s beginning is linked to the 1920s. African individuals who had studied in the United States and Europe (“Western” locations) had returned to Africa and reflected on the racial discrimination experienced abroad. Their arrival back in Africa instigated a feeling of onuma, which is an interpretation of “frustration.” The onuma was felt in response to legacies of colonialism on a global scale. The beginning of African philosophy is important because onuma inspired some who had traveled and returned to formulate a “systematic beginning” of philosophizing the African identity, the space of African people in history, and African contribution to humanity.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In the opinion of some philosophers, African philosophy, vis-à-vis Western philosophy, African philosophy depicts no more than a particularist exemplar of the universal (Western) philosophy. This research questions this assumption and demonstrates that, as a human undertaking, all philosophies remain context-dependent and cultureoriented. A contrary view ignores the proper nature of philosophy. A new phenomenon confronts currently confronts all comers to contemporary African philosophy: an expansive vision of African philosophical discourse. Contemporary African philosophers attempt to rethink the initial problems that confronted their pioneer counterparts. Whereas the pioneer African philosophers disputed one another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in their bid to give a novel response to those problems, end up introducing innovative frameworks, entirely fresh perspectives, new themes and solutions. As a consequence, they face new challenges.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to analyze a detailed history of African philosophy. And the specific objective are to:
1. Examined the Criteria, Methods, Schools, Movements and Periods of African Philosophy.
2. Review of the question of African philosophy.
3. Examined the list of African philosophy.
1.4 Research Questions
The following question are to be answer in process of this research.
1. What is the Criteria, Methods, Schools, Movements and Periods of African Philosophy?
2. Who are the African Philosopher?
1.5 Methodology
The method to be employed here in carrying out the research for the purpose of this paper would be by means of secondary sources which is mainly documentary. Information would be sourced from textbooks, internet, journals written by jurist and public lectures delivered by various professors if there is any related to my project, studying them and drawing a conclusion and preferring recommendations.
1.6 Operational Definitions of Terms
Philosophy:  is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Hermeneutical: is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts. Hermeneutics is more than interpretive principles or methods we resort to when immediate comprehension fails.
Ethonophilosophy: is the study of indigenous philosophical systems. The implicit concept is that a specific culture can have a philosophy that is not applicable and accessible to all peoples and cultures in the world; however, this concept is disputed by traditional philosophers.
Sagacity: the quality of being sagacious.
History:  is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof. Events occurring before written records are considered prehistory. “History” is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this work is centre on the analysis of the detail history of African philosophy.
1.8 Significance of the Study
The main significance of this study to give detail history of African philosophy to individual and organization and at the same time to board of knowledge and existing literature available for this topic.
1.9 Literature Review
The definition of philosophy has remained a perennial philosophical problem and there is little agreement as to what it is. Rather, what many seem to agree on is the descriptions of philosophy, that is, what it encompasses which will provide the basis for our definition. In the same vein, it has been difficult to define what African philosophy is, rather most philosophers have contented themselves in describing what African philosophy is. According to Sogolo, “the controversy over what constitutes an African philosophy tends to dominate sometimes so much that it forms almost the entire content of the course” (Sogolo, 1990).
In this research work, the attempt is to say what African philosophy is, inspite of the seeming unending polemics in the sphere and practice of African philosophy. In doing this, we shall start by attempting to describe and possibly define what philosophy is. Subsequently we shall be in a position to define African philosophy by looking at the origin of the debate on African philosophy which was as a result of the charge of irrationality leveled against the Africans. Let us recall that many European scholars mostly anthropologists and sociologists in the like of E. Durkheim, Auguste Comte, James Frazer, Sigmund Freud, Malinowski, Max Muller, Herbert Spencer, Edward Tylor and even Levy Bruhl, have attempted to give an answer to what the African traditional world views were through their theories on religions of the primitive people. For instance, Levy Bruhl rejected the rationality of the primitive people and claimed that they were largely pre-logical and that what their practices point to is a kind of symbolism.
Perspectives on African philosophy: According to Paulin J. Hountondji, philosophy can be regarded as the most self-conscious of disciplines. It is the one discipline that involves by its very nature a constant process of reflection upon itself.
The process of self-reflection, inherent in the nature and practice of philosophy bears not only upon its purposes, objectives and methods, upon its relation to the world and to human experience in its multiple expressions, upon its status among other disciplines and forms of intellectual pursuit and discourse, but also, most radically upon its very nature as an activity and as an enterprise. The view of philosophy as a critical activity whose function embraces an interrogation of its own nature and meaning is undoubtedly a legacy of the Greek philosophers (Hountondji, 1983). It is worth noting that African philosophy according to Hountondji, bears a direct relation to history and culture and that the reflection of African intelligentsia upon our total historical being represents a significant moment in the intellectual response of Africans to the challenge of western civilization.
An attempt to define African philosophy can help in understanding philosophy itself. Philosophy can be defined and at the same time be described as the critical examination of the ideas which men live by Staniland, 1979 such as the idea of justice, morality, political and religious ideas, even the idea of God, average men, perfect men and so forth.
In this critical examination, the philosopher engages in conceptual analysis of the issues involved and in doing this, the philosopher has the tool of logic solidly at hand. When we talk of conceptual analysis, for instance, of the principle of induction, we are looking for the validity or otherwise of the universal claim made as a consequence of examining particular instances. The conceptual issue arises as a result of the fact that the instances examined in inductive argument are not exhaustive of all the classes involved. Hence, the philosopher is apt to reject the universality of the claim made.
1.10 Chaptalization
This research work will be divided into five section from chapter one to five. the chapter of this research will contain the background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, methodology, operational definitions of terms, scope and delimitation of the study, significance of the study, literature review and chaptalization. The chapter of this work will deal with the review of the question of african philosophy, overview of the study, the four trends and the two basic approaches. The chapter three will contain introduction, criteria of african philosophy, and methods of african philosophy, schools of african philosophy, and the movements in african philosophy and periods of african philosophy. The chapter five of this work is to state the list of african philosophers whereas the chapter five will contain summary, conclusions and evaluation
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE QUESTION OF AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY
2.1 Overview of the Study
The past three or more decades have witnessed a deluge of works on the twin quest to know whether African Philosophy exists and what its nature consists of. The authors of most of these works who are erudite scholars in their own rights have been somehow engaged in what Nwala (1992:34) refers to as “Great Debate.” The earlier enquiry dwelt on whether African Philosophy really exists or whether it is non-existent. But a much later era went further to investigate more into what the nature of African Philosophy is. To a very large extent, the former quest into its existence seems to have been reasonably settled. However, as to what the nature of African Philosophy is, the debate has remained yet inconclusive.
Ikenuobe (1997:190), in his work on The Parochial Universalist Conception of ‘Philosophy’ and ‘African Philosophy’, attempts classifying philosophers into two camps, namely, the Universalists and the Particularists.
The former refers to those who view Philosophy mainly from the Western analytic point of view and who at one and same time believe that every philosophy, even if it were African in orientation, must be subjected to the Western yardstick. On the other hand, the latter refers to philosophers who hold that even the worldviews of any group of people sieved through their folklores, legends, myths or proverbs form their philosophy.
Bodunrin, however, falls into the first category. In his treatment of “The Question of African Philosophy”, he deals with the twin question of the existence and nature of African Philosophy. And he dwells particularly on the nature of African philosophy, bringing Oruka’s framework into focus. Meanwhile, he owns up on his eventual shift in insight as he sees the different strands of African Philosophy as different perspectives of understanding (p.163).
He gives the four trends a deeper and harder look with a view to drawing out probable reasons for the emergence of African Philosophy. Ethno-philosophy is outrightly considered as pseudo or debased philosophy; Philosophic sagacity is merely tolerated; and Nationalist Philosophy is tagged as ordinary cultural worldview or romanticisation with the past. It is only Professional Philosophy that is considered an impeccable manner of doing philosophy.
The entire gamut of the work presents two classic approaches to the study of philosophy, namely, Wonderment and Conscious creativity. That notwithstanding, in our review of this monumental piece, the four trends identified by Oruka ought to be revisited, if only briskly, so as to offer us some necessary illumination.
2.2 The Four Trends
The four philosophical trends identified by Oruka are, thus:
a) Ethno-Philosophy – which he says refers to communal thoughts or myths, folklores and folk-wisdom. This describes the world-outlook or thought-system of a particular African community or the whole of Africa. It is not a body of logically-agreed thoughts. He calls this philosophy in a debased sense. The works of Placide Tempels, Leopold Senghor, John Mbiti, Marciel Griaule, Isidore Okpewho, Asare Opoku and Alexis Kagame are classified under this trend.
b) Philosophic Sagacity – refers to the trend whereby men who are reputed for unadulterated traditional wisdom wise and/or who are independent-thinkers are sought after and identified from within the society. This depicts the fact that even without literacy or Western influence, philosophical reflection is possible. Such ones are usually traced from among those who have not been in any sense seriously affected by modernity. Within this context is classified the sage, Ogotomeli, in Marcel Griaule’s work on Dogan Religious Ideas, etc.
c) Nationalist Ideological Philosophy – is an attempt at evolving a new or unique political theory on traditional African Socialism and family hood. It is also aimed at authentic mental liberation and return to true and genuine traditional African humanism as a symbol of meaningful freedom and independence, as opposed to
the Western conceptual systems. Such philosophers include Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, Leopold Senghor, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Mobutu Seseseko, E.W. Blyden and W.E.B Dubois, etc.
d) Professional Philosophy – refers to trained philosophers. It is the view of Universalist philosophers as opposed to Particularist philosophers that philosophy must have same meaning in all cultures while the subjects and methods could be dictated by cultural differences or the existing operational environment of the philosopher. Here, it is submitted that African philosophy is done by African philosophers with African context. No mere descriptive accounts are considered philosophical. Rather, criticism and arguments are considered central characteristics. Oruka identifies Kwasi Wiredu, Paulin Hountondji, Oruka Odera himself and Bodunrin P.O. under this group.
In what looks like a shift in position, Bodunrin alludes to a new conviction that the different understandings of the meanings of philosophy by various contemporary philosophers represent different strands of African philosophy (p.163). On a general note, the thrust or focus of this section is an attempt at identifying the nature of African Philosophy. Thus, it raises questions on what it entails for a given idea to be termed African Philosophy; what the main characteristics of an African philosophical discourse are; what the challenges of African philosophers are; and what needs to be met and what problems to be solved.
In a bid to find solution to these quests, our author offers two basic approaches, thus: the Wonderment approach and the Creation Consciousness approach.
2.3 The Two Basic Approaches
1. Wonderment
African Philosophy begins with wondering at the nature of the universe, like any other form of philosophy, for instance, the stars, oceans, birds, life, death, growth and decay, etc. It is also understood that contact with Western
Europeans has impacted so much on the people’s traditional worldview and belief systems, especially via colonization, evangelization and introduction of writing. African Philosophy, therefore, has emerged as a means of meeting the challenges posed by the new situation. As Sogolo (1990:42) expressed it, utility should play a role in the society. Philosophy as a search for truth is not mutually exclusive of philosophy conceived in purely utilitarian terms. In this sense, philosophy is seen as a necessity. Some of the challenges posed by the new situation were clearly enumerated by our author in four primary ways in relation to the four trends earlier mentioned.
First, that the Europeans took special interest in studying the Africans in a bid to govern or convert them and discovered some radical difference between Africans and themselves in the colour of their skin, style of life and thinking capability and laid too much emphasis on how irrational and non-logical an African could be. With their missionary backgrounds, the anthropologists and ethnographers had vested interest in the people’s spirituality or Religion, which led them invariably into concluding that the people were primitive, irrational and illogical.
However, later developments, especially, in the area of education, naturally called for a redress in this misinformation and misinterpretation. These attempts were made by those Oruka terms ethno-philosophers.
Second, that with the rise of Black Nationalism emerged a generation which struggled for political independence and who at one and same time felt that all the vestiges of Western mode of life, whether in language, dress, culinary habits or government had to be curbed or expunged from the mentality of the people. The traditional social order with its pristine values of ancestral link were radically sought after. This came in the form of Nationalist ideological philosophy.
Third, that in a bid to produce a corollary to the intellectual categories of what the African intellectuals meet elsewhere in the course of academic quest in either history of philosophy or so, there exists that natural quest to evolve an autochthonous African species of these disciplines. Since it had become especially a vogue and a thing of pride and great value to talk of British Philosophy, American Philosophy, European Philosophy, Indian Philosophy, etc it became necessary to produce an African version of it, if the Africans were not to be considered inferior. The nationalists, therefore, felt it was patriotic enough to have African Philosophy. An instance of how Bodunrin’s colleagues in the Philosophy Department of University of Ibadan criticized and derided a syllabus which he drew up in 1974 as being too Western and not sufficiently African is cited as one of those challenges that spurred him into action (p.165). In this case, philosophers take up the challenge in introducing ethnophilosophy, political ideologies of African politicians or adopting socio-anthropological methods of philosophy.
Fourth, that consequent upon the fact that philosophy and the education sector in general has to compete with other social needs in the allocation of scarce resources, especially in the provision of infrastructures and basic human needs, such as hospital, portable water, good roads and agricultural development, the philosopher is also required to show the relevance of his discipline. This is what Sogolo (1990) refers to as ‘philosophical orientation’ being tied to the African sense. The need therefore for prefixing ‘Africa’ as in African Literature or African history obviously became very pertinent.
Bodunrin re-prioritizes them placing nationalist-ideological and philosophic sagacity first and ethno-philosophy, which is the so-called debased philosophy as the last. Here, he considers the latter as almost a non-philosophy which stands in “sharp opposition to the position he wishes to urge in his conception of philosophy” (p.166).
Bodunrin never failed to commend the efforts being made by African political thinkers as a worthwhile aspiration.
However, he was reserved on certain presuppositions of attempts so far made. And he categorically accuses them of romanticisation with the past. Thus, he posits that “the past the political philosophers seek to recapture cannot be recaptured” (p.166). He wonders why Nkrumah, after having alluded to this reality in his “Consciencism” by advocating a new African socialism which would take adequate care of the existential situation of Africa, would still subscribe to the belief that a full reconstruction of our social order is still possible without taking into cognizance our contact with the West through colonization and Christianity which has had far-reaching effects on African traditional life (p.166). Both Nkrumah and Nyerere are of the view that the traditional way of life must be the point of departure. As Sogolo (1990:42) would assert, “no discipline can ever sever ties with the past, since it is the past that gives inspiration to the present, while the present is expected to serve as a stimulant for the future.”
In a bid to reconstruct, obsolete ideas are dropped, while new ones are picked up. The bone of contention, however, is that,
The traditional African society was not as complex as the Modern African societies… The crisis of conscience which we have in the modern African society was not there. In the sphere of morality, there was a fairly general agreement as to what was right and what was expected of one. In a predominantly, non-money economy where people lived and worked all their lives in the same locale and among the same close relatives, African communalism was workable. Africa is becoming rapidly urbanized.
As he further argues,
The population of a typical big city neighborhood today is heterogeneous. People come from different places, have different backgrounds, do not necessarily have blood ties and are less concerned with the affairs of one another than people used to be. The security of the traditional setting is disappearing. African traditional communalism worked because of the feelings of familyhood that sustained it. This was not a feeling of the human race, but a feeling of closeness among those who could claim a common ancestry (p.167).
However, he agrees with Wiredu in advocating the need for organizing our cities into manageable units so as to foster the sense of belonging among people of diverse origins based on totally new premises. He harps on his condemnation of political thinkers for romanticizing the African past, arguing that “certainly, not everything about our past was glorious.” Our author cites the prevalence of land disputes between communities and villages and the subjugation of our ancestors by a handful of Europeans as some inglorious samples which should keep us from romanticizing our past.
He stresses, rather, on the need for reconstruction of our past, to examine features of our thought system and our society that made this possible, echoing that “African humanism must not be a backward-looking humanism.” He calls for a more vigorous, rigorous and systematized way of doing African philosophy, since no genuine manner of philosophizing can be completely devoid of the influence of modernity. Bodunrin also acknowledges that there are two ways of approaching the investigations of philosophic sagacity, namely, the Dr. Barry Hallen Model – which identifies reputed individuals, records their submissions in a course of dialogue and eventually sifts out the wheat from the chaff. Then, the Dr. Oruka Odera style of recording thoughts of individuals uninfluenced by modern education, thereby helping native Africans to give birth to innate philosophical ideas. This is doing African philosophy, because participants are Africans or are working in Africa and are interested in a philosophical problem from an African point of view. In a nutshell, a criticism of traditional, cultural beliefs, akin to what emanated from the Greek Athenian Agora is in the offing.
2. Conscious Creation
Philosophy is also seen as a Conscious Creation. In this case, there is strictly no conscious philosophy without conscious reflection on one’s beliefs. So also, in this respect, Bodunrin holds that the philosopher and the sage are helping to evolve this. The need for a tradition of organized or systematic, critical reflections on the thoughts, beliefs and practices of the people, cannot be underrated here. In this case, the role of writing in the creation of a philosophical tradition is brought into sharp focus, even though writing may not be a precondition. However, our author notes with utmost concern that there exists complex, rational, coherent and logical conceptual systems in Africa worthy of the philosopher’s attention. Yet, he faults certain ethno-philosophers who are of the view that all rational, logical and complicated conceptual systems are philosophical. While not applying the term ethnophilosophers with any pejorative intent, he notes with much concern that:
First, some of the things they say about African culture are false. Mbiti’s claim that Africans have no conception of the future beyond the immediate future and Senghor’s claim that Negro African reasoning is intuitive by participation, are cited to show that a philosophical work does not cease to be so simply because of false claims.
Second, which the argument that collective thought of people upon which they concentrate is not genuine philosophy is quite unacceptable to him. As it were, “disciplines are not in water-tight compartments, and areas of interest overlap.” Wright succinctly has it that there is no particular method which is the only method of philosophy today (p.171). Nevertheless, certain assumptions are still necessary as to clarity of thought-pattern, justification of issues at stake and not mere description of the empirical world.
In doing philosophy, therefore, the African philosopher, according to Bodunrin cannot deliberately ignore the study of the traditional belief system of his people. In fact, he sees the study of traditional societies as the most probable answer to the current state of philosophy whereby it is said to be impoverished. The need for criticism is brought to the fore, a criticism that is rational, impartial and an articulate appraisal from either negative or positive dimension. The nature of criticism is expected to be reforming, modifying or conserving and in applying one’s intellectual and imaginative intelligence to the search for an answer (p.173). It is a task to be undertaken piecemeal on issues with universal systematic examination of specific features of the world and the relationship perceivably obtainable between them.
Historical and literacy criticism, which is a product of the modern age, is seen as a corollary to philosophy and not any naïve comparison with ordinary history or literature. Herein, it is understood that writing helps one to pin down certain ideas which ought to be crystallized or etched on our minds, making the ideas of one day available for future use. “It is by this means that the thoughts of one age, are made available to succeeding generations, with the least distortion” (p.177). In this light, we do not have to begin all over again. It is indeed, doubtful whether philosophy can make any serious progress without writing.
Part of the nuances to this whole discourse is how Bodunrin argues that, of course, the philosophy of a country or region of the world is neither definable in terms of the thought-content of the tradition nor in terms of the national origins of the thinkers. He cites the Universalist conception of Wiredu that for a set of ideas to be a genuine possession of a people, they need not have originated them, they need only appropriate them, make use of them, develop them, if the spirit so moves them, and thrive on them.
The intellectual history of mankind is strewn in a series of mutual borrowings and adaptations among races, nations, tribes, even smaller sub-groups.
It is also true that the work of a philosopher is part of a given tradition if and only if it is either produced within the context of that tradition or taken up and used in it. One is at liberty to move into a culture guided by his philosophical interest.

Get Complete Materials

Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN SOLUTIONS ENTERPRESE https://abioliansolutions.com.ng
Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN ONLINE ACADEMY https://onlineabiolian.com.ng
HOST Your Website @ LETHOSTNOW https://lethostnow.com
Send Bulk SMS @ Abiolian Get Bulk SMS https://getbulksms.com.ng
Get Final Year Project @ Project Gist International http://projectgist.com.ng
Comments

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More

Privacy & Cookies Policy