CHALLENGES FACED BY INTEGRATED SCIENCE TEACHERS IN TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

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ABSTRACT

The title of this project is challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary school. The educational system of Nigeria has had a new look since the inception of integrated science in the junior secondary schools; even at that most secondary schools especially the junior categories in most of the rural areas tends to have a lot of setback in their overall academic performance in most external exams. The primary aim of the research work is to investigate on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools using Esthabel college olambe Ogun state as case study. The specific objectives of this project which are to examine the effect of poor laboratory and adequate training of teachers on the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ogun State, to examine the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of instructional materials for schools in Ogun State, to determine the factors affecting the learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools and to investigate the factors affecting teacher’s performance in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ogun State. Data collection plays a very crucial role in the statistical analysis. In research, there are different methods used to gather information, all of which fall into two categories, i.e. primary and secondary data. The analysis was represented in tabular form for easy understanding and it consist the number of respondents and the corresponding percentage and chi – square was used as the statistical tools used for this research.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study
The growth of science in Nigeria and the world at large is on a very high speed; one can define science as an intellectual activity carried on by humans that is designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover the ways in which this information can be organized into meaningful patterns.
Teaching Integrated Science offers considerable challenges and teachers express concern and apprehension when dealing with the situation. Teachers’ lack of confidence when teaching topics outside their area of expertise is manifested in different ways such as when preparing lesson plans, choosing or devising activities and analogies to aid students’ learning, answering students’ questions, linking and applying various concepts and principles to everyday life situations, generating students’ interest and passion for the Integrated Science . This article reviews various research studies conducted amongst teachers when teaching Integrated Science.
The aim of teaching Integrated Science is to provide a student-centered learning environment that meets the needs of individual students through adopting differentiated instructional strategies and to deliver an outcome based curriculum with high pedagogical standards. Unlike the traditional didactic teacher-centered teaching approach that was adopted in schools, an approach that is active and child-centered was necessary to deliver the new curriculum that focused on developing critical thinking rather than rote learning (Davidson, 2010).
Teaching Integrated Science is no longer teacher- centered or dependent on memorization. In teaching, ADEC recommends using inquiry-based teaching approach to develop the students’ scientific knowledge and skills (ADEC, 2010).
ADEC defines inquiry as “a process that encourages students to be self-directed learners, based on the students asking rich questions and developing their learning around those questions” (ADEC 2013, p. 12).
The state of science education has been of interest to many governments and researchers over the years in the world’s school education system. Most governments in one way or the other focus on improving science education in order to affect the economy. For this and other reasons, many research works in science education have been conducted at all levels of school education using different variables and methodology given revelation to many things. Anderman, Sinatra, and Gray (2012) pointed out that issues such as availability of appropriate science textbooks and classroom resources, preparation and training of pre-service and in-service science teachers, political and religious oppositions to the cutting-edge of science are some of the enormous issues confronted with science education. The rest are the need to meet standards and to effectively train science students for standardized examinations and the challenge of the web as a source of information.
Pryor and Ampiah (2003) explained that in Africa, teaching in a village school is not an easy task. This is because the poor results obtained by students from the final examinations conducted by International Institutions such as West African Examination Council (WAEC) make it difficult for teachers to maintain any sense of professionalism and pride. Teachers usually attribute village school students’ poor performance to the students’ lack of interest in schoolwork and indiscipline. Part of the blame is also attributed to parents/guardians’ neglect towards students’ learning. Thus the difficulty teachers face in teaching students from village junior high schools (JHS) in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular is the poor attitude of students and other community members towards schooling (Pryor & Ampiah, 2003).
Students’ poor attitude and interest towards school science is an issue identified across the world (Adu-Gyamfi, 2013; Fensham, 2008; Hallack & Poisson, 2001; UNESCO, 2010). In some instances, students’ lack of interest in science is associated with the use of science to select a small fraction of elite students at the early ages to become science specialists and in Malaysia, students’ lack of interest in science is associated with scarcity of well-paid jobs for science professionals (Hallack & Poisson, 2001).
From Hewson (1992, p. 10), “accepting that students hold different conceptions that might need to change is one thing: concluding that it is the teacher’s responsibility to engage in teaching practices that might facilitate conceptual change to occur is a separate matter.” It is therefore the responsibility of teachers to identify students’ conceptions and to instruct them in ways that will facilitate conceptual change. Consequently, Hewson asserted that teachers should not compel students to surrender their alternative conceptions but adopt appropriate instructional strategies that will offer students’ alternative conceptions the opportunity to equally compete with teachers’ or scientific conceptions for acceptance (Hewson, 1992). This can be achieved when science teachers encourage students to challenge any information presented to them and to discuss the information with respect to its personal merits (Dass & Yager, 2009).
In addition, to make science education effective teachers need to transform how students think to assist them to make meaning and apply scientific knowledge as scientists do. This transformation can be done if and only if science teachers can instruct science like a science (Wieman, 2008). It must further be noted that students’ pre-representations, which are assembly of ideas and images students use to solve problems can be more or less accurate. It is expected of science teachers to discover and confront such representations to confirm or contradict them.
This will help teachers to build new scientific knowledge in class (Kozan-Naumescu & Pasca, 2009).
Handelsman et al. (2004) reported that some teachers are intimidated by the challenge of learning new instructional strategies and therefore resist any change in their respective instructions. Wieman (2008) in his presentation revealed that the issue with science education is for teachers to develop a mindset that their instruction should be deployed in a similar way with all the rigor and standard as scientists conduct scientific research. Consequently, science teachers are expected to create an environment conducive for students’ active questioning and identification of issues and answers by employing appropriate instructional strategies (Dass & Yager, 2009).
Integrated Science came in Nigeria in 1968, West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) asked (STAN) Science Teachers Association of Nigeria to review and improve syllabus.
The written workshop was done at University of Ibadan in 1970. Other workshops were held in 1971 and 1972. Then textbooks 1&2 with workbooks and teachers guide were produces and introduced into the junior secondary schools Comparative Education Study Adaptive Centre (CESAC) and Educational development overseas sponsored the workshop and the working section through the British council in Nigeria.
As the integration of these Science courses, Integrated Science which should be taught as a unified science, not just as Chemistry or Physics or Biology. Because teachers that are not integrated science inclined teach integrated science either as Physics or Chemistry or Biology.
United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) give material support while Nigeria limited publishers published restricted science teaching to only those in higher classes, however the period from 1968 to 1970 witnessed a series of joint effort by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Comparative Education Studies and Adaptive Centre (CESAC) to redesign science to meet the need of loss science oriented. Students are to be taught in junior secondary classes, hence the introduction of Integrated Science.
According to Okoli (1978) stated that integrated science program evolved as a rescue operation to replace absolute and un-interesting general science courses. Chukwuemeka (1981) states that Nigeria Integrated Science is inter-disciplinary, integration as well because Nigeria Integrated Science is an integrated of nature of science. Integrated Science materials development in Nigeria was a deliberate attempt to achieving a specific national design.
Since Integrated Science was introduced into the syllabus in 1970 with proper study, so many problems like incompetent of the teachers, lack of teaching materials, improper teaching approach and the rest of them have evolved leading to non-learning interest by the students.
The integration of these three main sciences courses and some others to bring about Integrated Science, a lot of problems arise during the process. The idea of Physics, Biology and Chemistry has been adapted respectively but to no avail, we therefore have to go into this research to find a possible solution to the many problems.
Therefore, saying that the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools is very essential no doubt as it regarded as a yard stick in the development of any nation. This paper will focus on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in the teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary school in Esthabel college olambe Ogun state.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The educational system of Nigeria has had a new look since the inception of integrated science in the junior secondary schools; even at that most secondary schools especially the junior categories in most of the rural areas tends to have a lot of setback in their overall academic performance in most external exams. The major problem faced by integrated science teachers and the growth of integrated science in most of the junior secondary schools in Ogun state are stated as follows:
1. Lack of instructional materials
2. Poor laboratory
3. Communication problem due to high level of illiteracy in this area
4. Parent and students perception about integrated science

1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study
The primary aim of the research work is to investigate on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools using Esthabel college olambe Ogun state as case study. The specific objectives of this paper are stated below as follows:
1. To examine the effect of poor laboratory and adequate training of teachers on the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ogun State.
2. To examine the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of instructional materials for schools in Ogun State.
3. To determine the factors affecting the learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools
4. To investigate the factors affecting teacher’s performance in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ogun State.
1.4 Research Questions
The research question for this study are:
1. What are the effect of poor laboratory and adequate training of teachers on the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ogun State?
2. What are the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of instructional materials for schools in Ogun State?
3. What is the factors affecting the learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools
4. What is the factors affecting teacher’s performance in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ogun State
1.5 Hypotheses
The hypothesis formulated for this study are stated below:
Ho: there is no significance relationship between effect of poor laboratory, inadequate training of teachers and the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ogun State.
H1: there is significance relationship between effect of poor laboratory, inadequate training of teachers and the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ogun State.
Ho: there is no significance relationship between the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria and the provision of instructional materials for schools in Ogun State.
H1: there is significance relationship between the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria and the provision of instructional materials for schools in Ogun State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is very essential to the extent that it helps to identify most suggestions, for improving the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools. Students are future scientists; the need to bring them up with the right attitude is the sole responsibilities of the government, teachers, students, society.
The government, the promises and challenges of Integrated Science leads to greater integration of science and government in the age of rapid information exchange, science could offer the added benefit of integrated science to address natural resource management issues. Integrated Science as a whole picture seen that considers all the relevant issues and of natural resource management that are of major national benefit changes to the way science, government and stakeholders are involved conduct business and do research.
Integrated Science graduates are able to work with private or government employers in their area of and technology. Affillate program designed to provide economic benefits through research government agencies, and nonprofit organizations.
The teacher, the effects of Integrated Science process skill instruction on presented, whole only the benefits of teaching the Integrated Science process skills were mentioned, and investigator to measure prospective elementary teachers attitudes about using Integrated Science unit allow the teacher to assume the role of facilitator which most educators agree is the teaching, salary, benefits, Integrated Science teacher qualifications. Excellent organizational skills and strong interpersonal skills, excellent computer/technology, multimedia skills.
Students, the effect of Integrated Science process skill instruction on students enrolled in three intact elementary science methods classes at a large university presented.
The society, satellite observations to benefit science & society recommended missions for the next decade. An Integrated Science to benefit society by MICHAEL M. Crow scientists has made many great discoveries during the past 100.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will be restricted to the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary school. The scope of the study will centre on the following:
Is the government funding Integrated Science project, the teachers attitude in teaching of Integrated Science in our junior secondary schools, are students interest in learning Integrated Science, and the time allocated to teaching integrated science adequate. Gender, teachers, students are the major variables that were looked into in the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The research work is limited to challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary school. The main constraint of the research is divided into the following parts.
a) Time constraints- due to the short time given for the study, the researcher could not get all the required information needed for the study.
b) Finance- as a result of money constraint the researcher had not enough money to carry out the study beyond the level. The researcher could not visit places where necessary information relevant to the study could be obtained.
c) Attitude of respondents – some of the respondents were unwilling to cooperate with the researcher because they felt, they have nothing to benefit from the study both financially and otherwise to the researcher.
1.9 Definition of Terms
INTEGRATED SCIENCE: is a revolutionary programme provided by many universities of the world. The programme is devoted to providing a wide range of knowledge in various fields of science. There are no exclusive rights for this programme, and every institution can provide its own explanation.
TEACHER: A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.
JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: The Junior school experience of the child culminates in the BECE (Basic Education Certification Examination). This is the final test that determines if the child will proceed to the senior school.
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