1.1 Background of the Study
Nowadays domestic violence is widely regarded as a major social problem that affects the health and wellbeing of numerous people worldwide. However, the definition of domestic violence varies between different studies, samples and languages. Other closely related terms include intimate partner violence, family violence and family abuse. In this study “domestic violence” is used in a meaning of
Close relationship violence, which includes intimate partner violence but is not restricted to it. This broader definition of domestic violence can also refer to abuse happening between parents and children, siblings and former partners. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual or psychological, although these different forms of abuse are not always clearly distinguishable and often occur together (Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (STM), 2008; The World Health Organization (WHO), 2002). Physical abuse includes different forms of violence, such as slapping, kicking and pushing, throwing objects at the victim and usage of a weapon. Sexual abuse, in turn, includes rape and other ways of forcing or pressuring another person into sexual acts. Psychological abuse can appear as intimidation, controlling behaviors, constant belittling, name calling and emotional bullying. However, these definitions of domestic violence are not set on stone either, and the meaning of the terms used can differ significantly from one study to another.
Along with the definitions of domestic violence, the research questions and samples have changed through time as well. Especially the earlier studies on the subject focused only on physical or sexual violence and used mainly clinical samples retrieved from shelters and healthcare settings, whereas nowadays it has become more and more common to take into account the different forms of psychological abuse as well and use population based samples (Hamel, 2007). In the future the research on domestic violence is likely to continue to broaden, as differentiations are made between domestic violence types, gender, perpetrators, and other factors (Langhinrichsen Rohling, 2005). The existing literature has established that domestic violence has several negative effects on the lives of both victims and perpetrators, and that it also puts a strain on society in the form of increased costs in social and health care settings (Campbell, 2002). However, there are still many unanswered questions related to domestic violence as well as long lasting debates among researchers.
Domestic violence also named domestic abuse or family violence is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. It may be termed intimate partner violence when committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. Domestic violence can also involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It takes a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religious, reproductive, and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation, and acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning, bride burning, honor killings, and dowry deaths.
Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, and women tend to experience more severe forms of violence (McQuigg, 2011 and García-Moreno, 2013). They are also likelier than men to use intimate partner violence in self-defense (Swan, 2008). In some countries, domestic violence is often seen as justified, particularly in cases of actual or suspected infidelity on the part of the woman, and is legally permitted. Research has established that there exists a direct and significant correlation between a country’s level of gender equality and rates of domestic violence, where countries with less gender equality experience higher rates of domestic violence (Esquivel-Santoveña, 2013). Domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both men and women (Strong, 2010 and Concannon, 2013). Due to social stigmas regarding male victimization, men who are victims of domestic violence face an increased likelihood of being overlooked by healthcare providers (Riviello, 2009; Finley, 2013; Hess, 2016 and Lupri, 2004).
Domestic violence often occurs when the abuser believes that abuse is an entitlement, acceptable, justified, or unlikely to be reported. It may produce an intergenerational cycle of abuse in children and other family members, who may feel that such violence is acceptable or condoned. Many people do not recognize themselves as abusers or victims because they may consider their experiences as family conflicts that got out of control (Halket, 2013). Awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differs widely from country to country. Domestic violence often happens in the context of forced or child marriage.
In abusive relationships, there may be a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm. Victims of domestic violence may be trapped in domestic violent situations through isolation, power and control, traumatic bonding to the abuser (Dutton, 1981), cultural acceptance, lack of financial resources, fear, shame, or to protect children. As a result of abuse, victims may experience physical disabilities, dysregulated aggression, chronic health problems, mental illness, limited finances, and poor ability to create healthy relationships. Victims may experience severe psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Children who live in a household with violence often show psychological problems from an early age, such as avoidance, hypervigilance to threats, and dysregulated aggression which may contribute to vicarious traumatization (Schechter, 2007).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nowadays domestic violence is widely regarded as a major social problem that affects the health and wellbeing of numerous people worldwide. However, the definition of domestic violence varies between different studies, samples and languages. Other closely related terms include intimate partner violence, family violence and family abuse. This problem persist with the family and it affect the women and their children psychosocial development which lead to this study.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The main aim and objective of this study is to examine the influence of domestic violence on woman psycho-social development and the specific objective are:
1. To study the nature, extent and incidence of domestic violence against women.
2. To identify the correlates of domestic violence against women.
3. To find out the relationship between the traditional sex-based roles and the domestic violence.
5. To find out whether the abused women seek the help of informal or formal agencies and to what extent these agencies are successful in solving the problems of the abused women.
6. To trace the reasons for which abused women continue to stay in abusive relationships.
7. To examine the impact of domestic violence on the abused women, their children and intra-family relations.
1.4 Research Questions
The research question for this study are show below:
1. What is Domestic Violence?
2. Did domestic violence have significant effect on woman psychosocial development?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research hypothesis for this study are:
Ho: There is no significant effect of domestic violence on woman psychosocial development?
Hi: There is significant effect of domestic violence on woman psychosocial development?
1.6 Significance of the Study
Gender based violence problem is a national issue and may not be limited to the area in which the study is intended to be done. It is hoped that the findings of this study may be utilized by teachers and educational practitioners in identifying various emotional behavior disorders in children and their probable causes. The study may also create awareness to relevant stakeholders on the need for training teachers on special education so as to cater for various special needs in children. The findings may also sensitize the parents on the impact of domestic violence on women and how it affect their children and the need for living in harmony. The study findings may also be utilized by the policy makers on the need to implement and practice laws relating to the rights of women and children and come up with programs for helping the affected. It may also form a basis for future research on violent behaviors among women and its impact on children’s academic performance.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is centered on examining the influence of domestic violence on woman psycho-social development and their children academic performance.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
1. The limitation of the research title as just influence of domestic violence on woman psycho-social development.
2. Financial Limitation.
3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
Domestic violence: Refers to any act physical, psychological, emotional, sexual, economical or financial abuse against a member(s) within the family.
Gender Based Violence: Refers to any act of violence that result in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats such as coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private.
Physical violence: Any acts or omission committed within the framework of the family by one of its member that undermines the life, the bodily or psychological integrity or the liberty of another member same family or that seriously harms the development of or her personality
Sexual violence: Any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted comment or advance, or act to traffic a person’s sexually using coercion, threats of harm or physical force by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim in any setting including but not limited to home or work place.
Violence against women: Any act of gender based violence that result in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats such as coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private
Violence: Is a behavior that is abusive threatening or hurtful to people through physical, verbal or non-regulatory action.
Psycho-Social: relating to the interrelation of social factors and individual thought and behaviour.
Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.
Guidance Counseling: The means by which one individual helps another to clarify his or her life situation and to decide upon further line of action.
VAW: Violence against Women
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