Appraising the influence of social media on secondary school students

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ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to investigate the appraising the influence of social media on secondary school students in Mushin, Lagos State. Four research questions were generated for the study. Samples of one hundred and fifty (150) students were the respondents used to ascertain the usage of social networking websites for personal and educational development among Secondary School Students. A structured questionnaire which had four (4) sections was duly validated. The reliability level was 0.80 and it was used for data collection and same data collected through the research instruments were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentages to answer research question where 77.0% of the students was found that Facebook, Badoo and Google was the most popular social networking sites that students had access to, while 79.3% of the Secondary School Students do go online often and majority of students were spent average of two hours online and it was shown that 63.3% of the respondents agreed that the use of social media affected the academic performance of the students.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the problem

Social networking sites are fast becoming very popular means of both interpersonal, education and public communication in Nigeria. Social networking sites are modern interactive communication channels through which people connect to one another, share ideas, experiences, pictures, messages and information of interest. Boyd and Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as’’ Web based services that allow individuals to construct a Public or semi- public profile within a bounded system articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. They are interactive networks which information and communication technology (ICTs) bequeath to the modern society through the instrumentality of the Internet and the telecommunication gadgets. The Internet makes it possible to expand the networks and to increase the possibilities for communicating with wider audiences on the globe. The interactive aura of the new media confers an unprecedented popularity on them. Also the ambiguity of the social networking sites within their short period of arrival is unparalleled in the annals of media industry. Awake (2011) buttresses this point by noting that ‘‘social networking has become hugely popular. Similarly, it took 38 years for radio to reach 50 million users, 13 years for television to attract the same number and 4 years for the Internet to do so, but it took Facebook 12-month only to gain 200 million users. Social networking sites provide various interactive platforms based on the intentions of their founders. There are for instance, social, political, academic, businesses, sports, romantic and religious platform. In other words, the social networking site by their nature has the capabilities of educating, informing, entertaining and inflaming the audience. Onomo (2012) acknowledged this ability of the media by remarking that social networking sites has become ‘‘a widespread tool for communication and exchange of ideas, helping individuals and organizations with just causes to reach a phenomenally vast audience that could hitherto not be reached by traditional media.’‘ Thus, since inception, social networking sites like Facebook, twitter,2go, My Space, Skype etc. have mesmerized millions of users, many of whom have been made to use these sites as parts of their daily activities. Currently, there is a plethora of social networks with various features meant to suit the different interests of their followers. Some are accessed via computer alone while others can be used with mobile phones. The first identifiable social networking sites was launched in 1997. It allowed its users to create profiles, list their friends and in 1998, introduced the friends list where users had the freedom to search for old and new friends. This however was devoid of the provision for users to upload their profile pictures. Other social networking sites like classmates were founded to aid social interaction among their users but did not have many features like six degrees. Other social networking sites like Friendster and myspace created virtual community, which would help its members locate old and new ones, shape their personal profile via the Internet and socially idea or opinion under the sun. Two years later, Jack Dorsey Launched Twitter as an online blogging site, while the most recent 2go was founded in 2008 by Michael S. Egan. Therefore, just like radio and television, social networking has spread everywhere in Nigeria and are bound to be sprouting as the new media for are still obscure. In other words, from the analysis carried out by the researcher from the world Internet statistics (2012) it was found that out of the total population of 170,123,740 Nigeria, 5,860,240 numbers of people used Facebook as of 2012. Comparing Burundi and Chad with a similar population of 10,557259k and 199 75,648 respectively, the data shows that 37,040 and 36, 940 number of people respectively used Facebook as of 2012. This result showed that chad with a lesser population, use Facebook more than Burundi. Also out of the total population, of 83,688,164 Egyptians, 11,764,880 numbers of people used Facebook as of 2012. Comparing this with the number of Nigerian Facebook users, it shows that Egyptians has the highest number of Facebook users while Nigeria becomes the second in Africa. Similarly, Florunso, etal (2010) reviewed that: In Africa, social media networking sites are becoming widely Spread than it has ever been before and it appears that people’s Perception of this technology is diverse.). Furthermore, as a novel phenomenon, it is necessary to examine how secondary school students in Mushin, Lagosstate use the new means of communication and solving assignment and educational research. This is because student’s contribution as youths can make or transform any nation. Essoungou (2010), explain that the new communication technology is one of few ways that young Africans can bypass the inefficiencies in the system that allow the status quo to hold on. It lowers the barriers to entry for everyone to get involved and be heard. A study like this shall help to ascertain whether Students use of the social networking sites improves there personal life and the effect on their academic performance positively or negatively. This is obviously because the disposition of people of a given community could shape the social networking websites in existence there, just like a cerebral media scholar, Anim(2007)aptly notes that societies greatly influence the operations and functions of the media that operate within those societies An interesting example in this area was presented by Heather Rogers of the Haversack Towson University. She used the Facebook Group titled “Female of 324 Reading Methods Group” for meeting teacher candidates in a reading class. The group functioned as a platform where class works were discussed, questions were asked, opinions were criticized, information was sent, and views were supported. The researcher recommended the construction of book clubs for supporting students read, performing book discussion, and using social networks for sharing readings. She also mentioned that these social networks might be used in courses like history and literature, preparing cultural guides and programming applications (Gulbahar 2010). According to Lenhart et al., (2010), about 57% of social network users are 18-29 years old and have a personal profile on multiple social media websites. In a study by Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert (2009), the amount of time spent daily on social network sites varied greatly. However, an analysis of the data indicated most participants spent approximately 30 minutes a day socializing, mostly during the evening hours between 9 p.m. to 12 a.m. Students spent an average of 47 minutes a day on Facebook. More than 50% of college students go on a social networking site several times a day (Sheldon, 2008). QuanHaase and Young (2010) found that 82% of college students reported logging into Facebook several times a day. Younger students tended to use Facebook more frequently than older students to keep in touch with friends from high school or from their hometown (Pempek et al., 2009). According to Khan U (2009) Facebook users often time experience poor performance academically. Similarly, Englander, Terregrossa and Wang (2010) posit that social media is negatively associated with academic performance of student and is a lot more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction consequently gave rise in internet usage within the last couple of decades. Nalwa K, Anand AP(2003)recommended that addicted users prefer using internet setting back their personal and professional responsibilities which ultimately leads to poor academic performance. The world is celebrating the improvement in communication technology which has broadened the scope of communication through information and communication no doubt has turned the entire world into a „global village‟. But as it is, technology can make or mar an individual. It helps people to be better informed, enlightened and kept abreast with world development. Technology exposes mankind to better ways of doing things. Social media networking site include: Twitter, yahoo messenger, facebook messenger, blackberry messenger (BBM), WhatsApp messenger, 2go messenger, instagram, wechat, skype, google talk, google messenger etc. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends (Asemah and Edegoh, 2012). The world has been changed rapidly by the evolution of technology this has resulted into the use of technology as the medium to explore the wide area of knowledge. The evolution of internet technology has led to its use as the best medium for communication, whereby, two-third of the world‟s internet population visit social networking or blogging sites, thus serving as communication and connection tool. Social networking site (SNS) are online communicate with other users who want to communicate with other users about areas of mutual interest, whether from a personal, business or academic perspective (William, Boyd, Densten, Chin, Diamond and Morgenthalr, 2009) .currently, there is an array of social media networks in the world. It ranges from social sharing sites such as You Tube, Twitter, Linkedin to Facebook. Others include Whatsapp, Google, E-mail, 2go, BBM, Eskimi, E-Buddy, G-mail, Badoo, Skype, Instagram, Mobofree, Palmchat, Nigerloaded, Nigergist, Nimbuzz Smooothie, Flicker etc (Animasahun, 2015). The millions of social networking sites have transformed the thought of global village into a reality whereby billions of people communicate through social networking sites. Numerous benefits have been obtained through distance communication through the use of social networking site. According to Tuckman‟s model, reviewed by Amber-yang (2007), academic performance is the illustration of our knowledge, understanding, skills and he describes grade point average (GPA) as a clear indicator of student‟s performance. He mentioned that academic performance of students must be effectively managed and therefore, factors that can affect their performance should be carefully analyzed to reveal whether these factors influence them negatively or positively. It has been discovered that student‟s involvement in social networking sites comes with disadvantages; however it can be used as an instrument in knowledge building and dissemination. Additionally, Helou, Rahim,. and Oye in Musek and Kobal (2013) defined academic performance as the numerical scores of students‟ perception, understanding and concepts, which demonstrate their adaptation level to the educational system. Academic performance plays an important role in an individual‟s placement, be it in an academic institution or job placement. Due to this, many people are concerned with the way they can enhance their academic achievement. The emphasis is on academic performance which is also prevalent worldwide, and has encouraged many studies about the conditions promoting it. The conditions promoting this academic performance are as follows, learning, study skills, concentration, and motivation. Therefore, the role of academic performance is one of the predictors of one‟s life success and also in aspect of academic placement in schools to higher institutions as well as the level of employability in one‟s career is inevitable (kyoshaba, 2009). Thus, academic performance or achievement is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or an institution has achieved their education/al goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects is most important procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Bhagat in Annie, Howard and Mildred, 2013). Webopedia.com defines “Social media networking sites as a phrase which is used to describe any web sites that enables users to create public profiles within the web sites and form relationships with other users of the same web. Social media networking sites can be described as community- based web sites, online discussion forum, chat rooms and other social spaces online‟ Social media network sites affect individual relationships, expand their personal networks. Therefore, it is an online service that facilitates the building of social relations among people who share the same interests, activity, backgrounds or real life issues. Social network services consist of a representative of each user, for example, a profile, social links and other services in the network. Coyle (2008) believes that internet technological advancement has revolutionized communication. Coyle also supported this view, apart from technological empowering individual, user‟s lifestyle has changed in the way they connect and communicate with each other A direct relationship exists between social media usage and academic performance of students in secondary schools. However, the darker side within technological evolution has resulted in dilemmas such as the set back of real values of life, especially among teenage students who form the majority of users interacting through the use of social networking sites. Online social networking sites focus on building and reflecting social associations among people who share interest or activities. With so many social networking sites displayed on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their homework and reading times in preference for online chatting with friends. Many students are now addicted to the online rave of the moment, with facebook, twitter, Whatsapp, 2go, instagram, We-chat, yahoo messages etc. Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues. Anyone can be a registered user of the website. Users create a profile and add other friends; they can exchange messages, post status, updates and photos, share video and receive notifications when others update their profiles. Facebook is probably one of the best known social networking sites in the world. According to Ogbe (2014), Facebook is also one of the two most frequented websites in the entire internet. It routinely trades places with Google as the most visited web service and by the company‟s estimates, it now has over 800 million active users. Facebook started in the United States as a way for some college kids to stay in touch when they had left campus and it has evolved since then to become one of the largest social networks in the world. Facebook is a vast, sprawling network and you can make whatever you want of it. Created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg and his friends, originally as a way for students at Harvard University to get to know each other, it is now believed to have over a billion active users. Some of its functionality – such as Facebook Connect, a way to sign up to other websites using your Facebook login details – appears across thousands of other websites. You sign up by putting some details, and preferably a photo of yourself, on the Facebook website. Then you are ready to start posting a few updates. Alexander (2012) noted that Facebook had 845 million active users in 2012. The Facebook website accounts for 1 out of 5 Internet page views. Hampton, Goulet, Rainee, and Purcell (2011), of the Pew Internet and American Life Project, published study results stating that 79% of adult Americans use a social networking site. Ninety-two percent of the study participants used Facebook as their social networking site, 21% used Myspace, 18% used Linkedin, and 13% used Twitter. In a survey of Facebook usage, Hass (2006) found that the average user signs on about six times a day. WhatsApp is a free download message application for smart phones. It uses the internet to send messages, images, audio or video. The cost of using WhatsApp is significantly less than texting. It is very popular with teenagers because of features like group chatting, voice messages and location sharing. To use WhatsApp, you need a compatible smart phone tablet with SIM card, an internet connection and a phone number. The application uses your phone number as its users name, since your account is located to the phone, although, you can transfer your contact over to a new device. Today, most students possess facebook accounts. The reason most of them perform badly in school might not be far-fetched. While many minds might be quick to blame the poor quality of teachers they might have to think even harder, if they have not heard of the facebook frenzy (Oche and Aminu, 2010). Olubiyi (2012) noted that these days, students are so engrossed in the social media that they are almost 24 hours online. Even in classrooms, it has been observed that some students are always busy pinging, 2going or facebooking while teachers are teaching. Times that ought to be channeled towards learning, academic research and innovation have been crushed by the passion for meeting new friends online, and most times, busy discussing trivial issues. Hence most student‟s academics suffer set back as a result of distraction from the social media. It may be observed that the use of these sites also can affect student‟s use of English and grammar. This is because, while texting in any of this social media platform, there is need to use the short forms of writing for lack of space and for cost reduction, in order to pass their message across to their friends since they understand the code in the chat room too, they tend to forget and use the same short forms of writing in classrooms especially during exams. They use things like 4 in place “for”, u in place of “you”, d in place of “the” etc. All these could affect their grade or class assessment. Social networking sites have been recognized as an important resource for education today, but it seems, students are using these social networking sites for fun to kill time meant for reading. Whenever they want to meet with their existing friends or make new friends, they spend much time in participating in social media activities. Sometimes these students blame the various networking sites for their steady decrease of their grade point. This shows that, only very few students are aware of the academic and the professional networking opportunities the sites offer. According to Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010) in their book “The Impact of Social networking websites on the education of youth” social network websites grab attention of the students and then divert it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions including useless chatting. Whereas on the other hand, it has been observed that the students are socially-connected with each other for sharing their daily learning experience and do conversation on several topics. This shows that, social networks are beneficial for students as it contributes in their learning experiences as well as in their academic life. Trusov, Bucklin, and Pauwels (2009) in their book “The effect of word of mouth versus traditional marketing: Findings from an internet social networking site” noted that the internet is no doubt the evolution of technology but especially social network are extremely unsafe for teenagers. Social networks have become hugely common and well-known in the past few years. Ellison, Lampe and Steinfeild (2007) in their book “The benefits of Facebook “Friends” stated that the students use social networking websites approximately 30minutes throughout the day as part of their daily routine life. Lenhart and Maddern (2007) in their book “Social Networking websites and Teens/Pew Research center” revealed through a survey that students strongly recommend social networking websites to stay in touch with friends and to get information. According to Karpinski A (2009) pointed out that Facebook users devoted lesser time to their studies in comparison to nonusers did and subsequently had lower grades. Also mentioned that among various unique distractions of every single generation, Facebook remains a major distraction of current generation. According to Kubey, Lavin, and Barrows (2001) impairment of educational performance and internet dependency are correlated by utilizing synchronous communication programs including internet sites and forums. There are benefits and risks associated with using any social network. There have been reports regarding its effect on students’ academic performance. Some researchers investigated the end result of social networking usability among College students’ and with their academic performance. They found a poor effect and influence when the media is overuse in such a way that do not academically improve learning or its process Other researchers examined this same problem but found either no significant relationship between using social networking and student academic performance , or really a factor in students’ academic performance.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Since the advent of social media sites in the 1990s, it is assumed in some quarters that the academic performance of students is facing a lot of neglect and challenges. The student are easily distracted with the availability of social networking sites and find it difficult to pay full concentration on their academic performance. It is observed that students devote more attention to social media than they do to their studies. Therefore, the researcher sought to: investigate the usage of social networking websites for personal and educational development among secondary student in Mushin, Lagos state?

1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study

The main aim and objective of this study is to investigate the Appraising the influence of social media on secondary school students in Mushin, LagosState. The specific objective are:

• To find out the various social networking sites the students had access to.

• To find out how often the students of Mushin, Lagos state secondary school student go online.

• To determine how many hours the students spend in social networking activities daily.

• To ascertain how the use of social media has affected the academic performance of the students.

1.4 Research Questions

1) What social networking sites do the secondary school students of Mushin, Lagos state had access to?

2) How often do the students of secondary school students of Mushin, Lagos state go online?

3) How many hours do the students spend on social networking activities?

4) How has the use of social media affected the academic performance of the students of Mushin, Lagos state secondary school student?

1.5 Scope of the Study

The research intends to focus on some selected secondary school in Mushin, Lagos state for easy analysis on the social networking sites secondary school student make use, time spent online, utilisation level and to check the academic performance of student with the use of social networking sites.

1.6 Significance of the study

The study will help researchers with more information on investigation on the usage of social networking websites for personal use and educational development among secondary school students in Mushin. It will be relevant in assisting students in understanding the diversity of social networking sites and to allow their parents. The teachers of the student will be able to access the performance of the student and their personal attention in class. It will provide relevance material for students and other researchers undertaking similar research.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:

1. The limitation of the research title as just internet of things and the security of our business.

2. Financial Limitation.

3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.

4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving

1.7 Definition of Terms

Social Media- They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate interaction base on certain interests. Social media include web and mobile technology. Kaplan and Helen (2010) defined Social Media as a group of internet based application that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content.

Social Networking Sites – A website where people put information about them and can send to others.

Social Networking – The use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send messages to them.

4. Media – Are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. “They are messages communicated through a mass medium to a number of people” (Bittner, 1980).

Computer – A computer is a machine that receives or stores or process data quickly according to a stored program. Access – Communicating with a computer program or to the internet

Utilisation – The manner in which something is used Academic performance – it is the outcome of education to the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their academic goals

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