1.1 Background of the Study
Breast milk or mother’s milk is milk produced by mammary glands located in the breast of a human female to feed a young child. Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, but solid foods should be introduced in combination starting from six months of age.The baby nursing from its own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube. In preterm children who do not have the ability to suck during their early days of life, the use of cups to feed expressed milk and other supplements is reported to result in better breastfeeding extent and duration subsequently than bottles and tubes (Collins, 2016).Breast milk can be supplied by a woman other than the baby’s mother, either via donated pumped milk (generally from a milk bank or via informal milk donation), or when a woman nurses a child other than her own at her breast, a practice known as wetnursing.
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, with solids gradually being introduced around this age when signs of readiness are shown. Supplemented breastfeeding is recommended until at least age two and then for as long as the mother and child wish (WHO, 2011).
An expert system is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to simulate the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field.
Typically, an expert system incorporates a knowledge base containing accumulated experience and an inference or rules engine — a set of rules for applying the knowledge base to each particular situation that is described to the program. The system’s capabilities can be enhanced with additions to the knowledge base or to the set of rules. Current systems may include machine learning capabilities that allow them to improve their performance based on experience, just as humans do.
The concept of expert systems was first developed in the 1970s by Edward Feigenbaum, professor and founder of the Knowledge Systems Laboratory at Stanford University. Feigenbaum explained that the world was moving from data processing to “knowledge processing,” a transition which was being enabled by new processor technology and computer architectures.
Expert systems have played a large role in many industries including in financial services, telecommunications, healthcare, customer service, transportation, video games, manufacturing, aviation and written communication. Two early expert systems broke ground in the healthcare space for medical diagnoses: Dendral, which helped chemists identify organic molecules, and MYCIN, which helped to identify bacteria such as bacteremia and meningitis, and to recommend antibiotics and dosages.
A more recently developed expert system, ROSS, is an artificially-intelligent attorney based on IBM’s Watson cognitive computing system. ROSS relies on self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition, deep learning and natural language processing to mimic the way the human brain works.
Expert systems and AI systems have evolved so far that they have spurred debate about the fate of humanity in the face of such intelligence, with authors such as Nick Bostrom, professor of philosophy at Oxford University, pondering if computing power has surpassed our ability to control it.
1.2 Statement of the Study
When monitoring breast milk, it is often challenging tracing the cause’sbreast full-up and breast don’t have milk. Often, some of these issue are so minor that clearly every breastfeeding mother ought to be able to handle them effectively without having to undergo the stress of finding experts. In many occasions, the issue are perfectly eliminated by feeding their baby or just get some few drug. However,the need for a reliable health practitioner cannot be over emphasized.
This project has been designed as preventive method in a “DO IT YOURSELF FASHION”. It as well provides most of the outstanding information necessary for breastfeeding mother to monitor breast milk.
1.3 Aim and objective of the Study
The main aim and objective of this project is design and implement expert system of breast milk monitoring for breastfeeding mother and other objective are:
1: To assemble a knowledge base that is common to the breast milk monitoring by breastfeeding mother.
2: To present this knowledge in a diagnostic format such that it will enable even non-expert to identify and correct minor problems of the breast especially. 3: When the experts are not handy, to provide a breastfeeding mother teaching aids on the basis of “DO IT YOURSELF”.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The import of this proposed system is to reduce the stress of breastfeeding mother and get expert knowdelge on issue at hand without visiting the hospital
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this system is center on design and implementation expert system of breast milk monitoring for breastfeeding mother
1.6 Limitations of the Study
Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
EXPERT SYSTEM(ES): – The title of this work “expert system on trouble shooting and maintenance of Epson printer” presents a lot of computer words or term or jargon which need detailed explanation or definition for absolute comprehensive of this and topic and the intention of this work.
WHAT IS EXPERT SYSTEM?
According to Daniel L. Stotink and his friends in a book “computer and application an introduction to data processing” expert system is also a knowledge based system. It is a complex software(program),designed to imitate the thought processes and decision making patterns of human experts in a given field. The expert system is an off-string of artificial intelligence(AI) and it is developed using the programming technique of AI (Satvika, AkhilKaushik, 2012).
KNOWLEDGE-BASE:-The repository in a computer of an expert knowledge in a given domain is a knowledge base.
DOMAIN EXPERT:-It is not easy to effectively replace the human being with just one expert system rather a piece meal approach is used in which an expert system is instrumental for a narrow domain to imitate the human being activities at a time.
REASONING BY INDUCTION:-If in an expert system past condition and corresponding decisions reach are stored such that where a new condition arises. The computer tries to match it with one of the previous condition, the approach is known as reasoning induction.
HEURISTIC:-In general, the experience a human being acquires in any of human endeavorsare often in the form of rules of thumb which the human expert falls upon when confronted with a new but related situation. Such rules of thumb are known as heuristic in artificial intelligence terminology.
TROUBLE-SHOOTING:- Is the act of detecting and mending faults be it a software or hardware facility. To be good trouble shooter one needed to understand a system better than average person.
INFERENCE ENGINE:- The knowledge of an expert can be represented as a set of rules that allows the computer to make human like decision on the subject in other words, a knowledge – base can actually be in the form of rules and not only in the form of tables of information which can also be used as alternative approach. A computer program written to shift through the set of rules representing human expert knowledge so as to reach a decision on the current situation can be referred to as inference mechanic or inference engine.
MAINTENANCE:-Maintenance is the performance of “preventive or remedial maintenance in order to prevent incipient hardware faults or to correct a hardware fault that has occurred”. We therefore define computer and printer maintenance as the prevention and correction faults in the system or knowing the fault that has occurred or that fault can occur.
In definition, two kinds of maintenance can be identified.
(i)PREVENTIVE:-This is knowing that faults can occur and taking steps to prevent occurrence.
(ii)CORRECTIVE:-This knows that faults have already occurred and it has to be corrected. Also a definition of exactly what is (fault) or constitute a fault must be known.
In essence, for maintenance to take place a description of the normal fault (its cause) and its remedy must be known.
BREAST MILK: Breast milk or mother’s milk is milk produced by mammary glands located in the breast of a human female to feed a young child.
ONLINE: An online is a condition of connected to a network of computers of other devices. The term is frequently used to describe someone who is currently connected to the internet.
INTERNET: this is a global connection of computer network co-operating with each other to exchange data using common software standard protocols
DATA: These are raw fact that to proposed into meaningful information
MANUAL SYSTEM: Any system that does not involve the use of electronic computer.
COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM: This is process of operation of integrated with a computer system.
SHOPPING: Is the processing of browsing and purchasing items in exchange of money
USERS: An agent either human agent, (en 0 user) or software agent who uses a computer or network services.
SECURITY: Its objective are to establish rules and measures to against attacks over the internet
SHOPPING CHART: A chart supplied by a shop, especially supermarket, to use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the check- out counter during shopping
ACCESSIBILITY: A general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, or environment is accessible by as many people as possible.
DATABASE: A systematized collection of data that can be access immediately and manipulated by a data processing system for a specific purpose
E-COMMERCE: Electronic commerce refers to the process of marketing, buying and selling of product and services online.
ROBUSTINESS: The ability of a compute to cope with errors during execution or the ability of an algorithm to continue to operate despite abnormalities in input calculation etc.
HTML CODE: – HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.
Markup language: – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.
Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.
File extension: – A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.
Email: – Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.
TCP/IP: – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of “more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronymthat describes the operations involved.
TEXT FILE: – A text file is a computerfile that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.
Hyper Link:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.
WWW: – acronym for World Wide Web.
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