Design and implementation of a computerized child abuse database management system

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ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

The increased Violence against young people includes all types of violence, these occurs for ages between 0-18 years old. This violence may be child maltreatment (i.e. sexual and emotional abuse, neglect or physical violence) mostly between parents or other authority figures. Both genders (boys or girls) are at same risk of physical assault and emotional neglect and abuse, the females are at greater risk of sexual abuse or violence, this mostly leads to unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. As young people between this age groups reaches adolescence, peer violence and intimate partner violence, in addition to child maltreatment, becomes highly unavoidable. Violence against children can be avoided by setting up preventable measures. Preventing and addressing to violence against children requires that efforts the society, health workers and other organizations to systematically address the risk and protective factors at all four interrelated levels of risk (individual, relationship, community, society). World Health Assembly (May 2016), reached a resolution which endorsed the first ever WHO Global plan of action on tightening the roles of the health system within a national multisectoral response to fight against child neglect, interpersonal violence in particular against girls and women, and against children. The Online child abuse database management system when implemented, will be an application developed to move beyond addressing the impact of child abuse by seeking out the root cause and identifying ways to prevent it. This is an application created to trace out the statistics based on the reports about child abuse and help reduce the rates of the crime. It will maintain a centralized database of all scheme related information. This computerized system verifies and generate reports of incidents about abusive parents, physical and sexual abuse. The Child abuse application will maintain vital information about child abuse laws, it will provide details about those children who are in risk. Encounter the challenges with proper documentations which include misplacement of vital information or cases, as a result of large volume of work handled, duplicated or efforts due to inconsistency in activities, and a lot of time spent in searching for files or reports when needed for processing.

Children are precious gift from the almighty God. Children are a heritage from God, children are a reward from Him. They need to be cared for, loved, cherished, appreciated and adored in a reliable manner. In African context, children are so regarded that a family without a child is seen as incomplete institution.

According to Onuzulike (2007) generally stated that a child is an individual under the age of eighteen years. Child abuse is defined as the portion of harm done to a child who may be from human action or inaction that is proscribed or proximate and preventable. Preventable here implies that it is not accidental but intentionally inflicted on the child by perpetrator who does not care about the outcome.

Child abuse as a social problem has only recently opined recognition and attention of the Nigeria public. This was as a result of an organization known as the African Network for prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) which was set up in (1984) by some African countries including Nigeria.

          Their aim was to look into the area of child abuse and neglect, 25 pertains to Africa, since the Nigeria has formed its own chapter of the network which was inaugurated in (1986) and this body has held a couple of conference in an effort to defined and identify aspects of child abuse within the society. The African network for prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (1999) defines child abuse as denial of the basic rights and need of the child by parents, schools, government and society.  According to Ekpe (2001), also stated that “Neglect” implies a disorder in parent child relationship characterized by a failure of parent to provide for the child the personal values and the child suffers from lack of attention, malnutrition and lack of stimulation.

Development of some societies/states and some individuals as well is partly under suffocation because of child abuse. Child abuse [which encapsulates physical abuse or child maltreatment, infliction of emotional distress or trauma upon a child, child labour, sexual harassment, child marriage, etc.] is a problem that confronts almost every state regardless of the continent they are found or their level of development/advancement in science and technology. However, child abuse is very rampant in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular as a result of this common factor – POVERTY. Poverty, or rather, extreme poverty is real in Nigeria and because of this some families who consider the harshness of the poverty unbearable, compromise the future of their young ones or children. The primary reasons for the compromise are the need for survival and the weakness or the failure of legal means established by the Nigerian government to protect child (Bass, 2004 in Onyido and Vareba, 2019:44). Howbeit, most of the families who engage in child abuse lack the true knowledge of the fact that using children for survival has its own resultants; they, through their actions, unknowingly jeopardize the future of the young minds, a future that Nigeria will someday benefit from, a future that is sacrosanct for the development of the country. They are also unaware, as Ede and Kalu (2018:46) put it, that children are the bedrock of any society and the greatest assurance of the continuity of human race. Children, unknown to them, are the prime reason for our visualization of tomorrow. Without them categorically, our tomorrow’s society becomes a mirage, a hallucination. Very importantly, there are concepts we need to fathom first before we could jump into exploring how child abuse affects personal and national development in Nigeria.

The main background of the study exposes the problems inherent in a non-computer based database system. An organization like African Network for prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) encountered serious problems in the area of documentations which include misplacement of vital information or cases, as a result of large volume of work handled, duplicated or efforts due to inconsistency in activities, and a lot of time spent ins searching for files or reports when needed for processing.

1.2 Problem Statement

For a system to require some modification or replacement or enhancement, there must be some existing problems associated with the old or existing system that prompted to it. This organization faces numerous problems due to the manual methods of recording which may include:

  1. Inefficient and ineffective security measures in order to avoid loss of data by unauthorized users.
  2. The keeping and retrieval of accurate data or records on child abuse, complainant and offenders which are poorly carried out.
  3.   Wrongly filed and placed, hence it is not easy to obtain accurate information
  4. The length of time required for processing client report is much
  5. Keeping folders of report manually takes a lot of time, money and some of the information is redundant.
  6. It is unreliable and accurate
  7. It results to unnecessary duplication of reports
  8. It causes loss of documents

1.3 Objectives

The main objective of the project is to fully understand the existing system and to identify the basic information requirement and then discuss now the computerization of the system can assist in eradicating the problems of non-computer based system. The purpose of this project is to design and implement a system that will solve the problem of misplacement of vital reported cases, documents and records, duplication of efforts, and time taken or needed to process files and records.

The specific objectives includes:

  1. To design a functionally database system
  2. To compute and achieve child abuse records
  3. To process and achieve each record
  4. To analyze each record
  5. To produce event report in demand

1.4 Justification of Study

Child abuse and child neglect are social problem that affects a significant number of people, about which something must be done by designing a computerized child abuse and neglect database management system.

When finding from this study are implemented, it will help the staff in ANPPCAN, Enugu to solve the problem associated with inability to keep accurate reports and records effectively and acid loss of data or reported cases, and also the Nigeria to be aware of the rate of child trafficking. This work will also be beneficial to academic who want to do further research of the area.

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study was limited within or to African Network for prevention and protection against child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN), Enugu. This is to achieve the targeted area of the study. This work will only compute the child abused, complainant and offenders’ records, the system will require constraints internet facility to enable the user to access the platform.

1.6 Thesis Organization

The research work will consist of five chapter, chapter one of this work will contain background information, problem, objective, justification, scope and definition of terms. Chapter two of this study will contain related literature for this study, chapter three will contain all research methodology use for the study, chapter for we consist the result and discussion of the study and last chapter which chapter five will consist conclusion and recommendation for the study.

1.7 Definition of Terms

  1. Child: Child is defined as the dependent person in the custody of a parent or guardian for protection of his/her life.
  2. Abuse: It is any deliberate act by a person, group of person in the society designed to inflict on a child mentally, physically sexually or emotionally.
  3. Neglect: This usually occur when families fail to or on their own part fail to provide the necessary need for their children such as food, medical care, being deprived of essential need of life.
  4. ANPPCAN: African Network for Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect.
  5. Child Abuse: This is a child this is physically, sexually, emotionally or psychologically maltreated by the parent, caregivers, teachers or group of persons.
  6. Complainant: A complainant is a person who lodges a complaint. It is a term used in content of criminal law to refer to person who alleges that another person committed a criminal act against him/her in a legal way. It is a person who reports a case or crime.
  7. Offender: This is a person who commits an illegal act. He/she is a criminal and guilty of an offence.

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