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Knowledge is an intangible asset and plays a critical role in the success or failure of any organization. Dynamic organizations take it as an instrument, which enables them to enhance customer satisfaction (Attia & Salama, 2018) and successfully compete in the market (Mothe et al., 2017). During the last two decades, KM has received significant attention in the business world and has been acknowledged as a vital element in designing strategies, developing new products and services (Mardani et al., 2018), and managing the operational processes (Qasrawi et al., 2017). An Effective Knowledge Management system will enable the organization to become more innovative and effective ( Yusr et al., 2017 ) . For this reason, a number of organizations take KM as a strategic resource, which enables them to outperform their competitors ( Bolisani & Bratianu , 2018 ).  KM has become a substantial source for achieving organizational effectiveness and it is therefore important to examine this influential factor. Organizations are interested in KM to boost their efficiency, increase their productivity and quality of their services, and to achieve innovative solutions for their products and customers. Also, many researchers see KM as an important catalyst for understanding the role of knowledge in an organization (Moffett et al., 2003). KM is more than just about the storage and manipulation of information, it is a process that requires commitment to create and disseminate knowledge through an organization (Ardichvili et al., 2006). Effective KM requires that attention be paid to the human and cultural aspects of business, particularly the experiences and implicit knowledge of employees. Numerous studies reveal that organizational culture and leadership are the major barriers to creating, sharing, and leveraging knowledge assets (Carrillo, et al., 2004; DeTienne, Dyer, Hoopes, & Harris, 2004; Lakshman, 2005; Park, Ribiere, & Schulte, 2004).

A conducive , progressive and enduring culture is believed to be a foundation for efficiency (Chen, 2010 ; Flanagan, 2010) . Therefore, developing organizational culture serves several important purposes; culture serves as a sense – making device that can guide and shape behavior (Wang & Rafiq, 2014). This study therefore will investigate the indirect impact of organizational culture in knowledge sharing.[WU1] 

 Leaders have huge impact on KM practices within their organizations. A leader creates conditions that allow participants to readily exercise and cultivate their knowledge manipulation skills, contribute their own individual knowledge resources to the organization’s pool of knowledge, and have easy access to relevant knowledge Leadership research studies also shows that successes and failures depend on the integrity of the leader , team diversity management , organization of the staffs knowledge and to a leader’s ability to grow and exploit their team’s potential and thus overall organizational capability ( Millar . Chen & Waller . 2015 ).  Hence without effective leaders, who set appropriate examples, employees will not be motivated to participate in the KM programs (DeTienne et al., 2004; Ribiere & Sitar, 2003).

According to Latif, K. F., Nazeer, A., Shahzad, F., Ullah, M., Imranullah, M., & Sahibzada, U. F. (2020[WU2] ), inferred that leaders also play a crucial role in building and maintaining an organizational culture of learning and implementing KM in the organization. Leaders must attach a high value to knowledge, encourage questioning and experimentation through empowerment, build trust, and facilitate experiential learning of tacit knowledge. Regarding the relationship between self-management, transformational/transactional leadership, and various KM attributes, Politis (2001) found that self- management, transformational and transactional leadership styles are related to knowledge acquisitions. According to the theoretical and empirical findings of several authors (Crawford, 2005; Paul, Costley, Howell, & Dorfman, 2002; Politis, 2001; Popper & Lipshitz, 2000), one of the most appropriate leadership styles for knowledge organization is the transformational leadership style. Transformational leaders are willing to sacrifice their individual interests for the good of the organization and its goals; they motivate co-workers by inspiring a vision of the organization’s future. This type of leadership motivates followers to exceed their own self-interest for the good of the organization. Vera and Crossan (2004) found that transactional leaders stimulate the flow of learning from organization to individuals and groups by assigning a strong value to organizational rules, procedures and past experiences. A task – focused behavior is related to the transactional leadership style and person – focused behavior is related to the transformational leadership style ( Ceri , Curseu & Oerlemans , 2016 ) . According to Zhang , Tsui & Wang ( 2011 )[WU3] 

 They also provide organizational members with formal systems and training programs that disseminate existing learning to guide future actions and decisions. A task – focused behavior is related to the transactional leadership style and person – focused behavior is related to the transformational leadership style ( Ceri , Curseu & Oerlemans , 2016 ). According to Zhang , Tsui and Wang ( 2011 ), right measures need to be designed to adapt organizational culture and KM.  


The primary objective of this study is to explore the relationship between leadership and KM practices, and to determine if organizational cultures can moderate such relationships between leadership and KM. The design of this study follows a deductive approach, beginning with abstract, logical relationships among constructs in the theoretical framework, and proceeding toward concrete, empirical evidence. It seeks to investigate the perceptions of managers regarding leadership behaviors, organizational culture, and KM practices within their organizations using a deductive approach to achieve this investigation. Data collection involved distributing a questionnaire to a total sample of 1,000 employees [WU4] in Cameroon. Multivariate statistics will be employed to quantitatively analyze the data collected from the questionnaire survey. These techniques are considered suitable for the present study as they will  provide an analysis of the complicated data set and used multiple independent and dependent variables (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007).

Firstly, the reliability and the validity of the measurement scale will be assessed using factor analysis including two sequential techniques, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Secondly, multiple regression analysis will also be employed to test the proposed hypotheses to answer the research questions concerning the relationship among leadership behaviors, organizational culture, and KM.

Additionally, moderated regression analyses will be performed to test the moderating effects of organizational culture on the association between leadership behaviors and KM practices.


  • This study is limited to the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Cameroon (the term ‘enterprise’ and ‘organization’ are used interchangeably throughout the thesis);
  • This study will be based on the examination of internal organizational factors; therefore, it will not take into account any effects from external environmental factors; and
  • This research approach follows a cross-sectional study rather than an idealistic longitudinal study.


You have to mention that this research is a replication study, it is not the first

This research examines the influence of leadership behavior and organizational culture on knowledge management practices in an SME operating on the private sector in Cameroon.

Different perspectives on the topic of leadership behavior, organizational culture and knowledge management practices have been provided in research, by reviewing previous literature, it is indicated that leadership behavior and organization culture have an impact on knowledge transfer within an organization (Hayat & Ri, 2011) which reinforces the groundwork for conducting this research. The aim of this thesis is to interpret on how Leadership Behaviors and Organization culture influence Knowledge Management practices in  SMEs in Cameroon context which sets the boundaries of the findings within the private sector  Oyemomi, O., Liu, S., Neaga, I., Chen, H., & Nakpodia, F. (2019[WU5] ). Furthermore, to investigate how this influence interconnects to the utilization of Knowledge Management for organizational performance. This study emphasizes the significance of the inter-relationships of the components that support performance, and it investigates the indirect impact of organizational culture.

Regarding the managerial practices, this study is significant in that  it will provide managers and leaders with insights into how knowledge is managed in their organization. Furthermore, this study will help leaders to identify the specific leadership characteristics and behaviors that are related to KM efforts in different types of organizational cultures. Using one of these leadership styles, leaders, through their behavior, will make knowledge activities become totally integrated with work by introducing a reward system. That is reward and recognized desired behaviors, paying tribute to knowledge champions, offering bonuses, letters of appreciation, promotions, attractive assignments, and allocation of resources (Pyrovolaki, & Liu, 2020). Additionally, leaders clearly state what activities will be rewarded, and ensure that they contribute to the creation or leverage of knowledge.  According to Latif, K. F., Nazeer, A., Shahzad, F., Ullah, M., Imranullah, M., & Sahibzada, U. F. (2020),[WU6]  leaders must have a deep understanding of the identity and impact of organizational culture in order to communicate and implement new visions, and to inspire follower commitment to the vision. In this regard, understanding the influence of various organizational cultures will provide clues for managers and leaders in shaping the culture to meet changing needs.


This research consists of six chapters. This chapter introduces the rationale for the research, research aims and scope, the significance of the study, as well as providing an overview of the research method and an outline of the thesis layout.

Chapter 2 provides an extensive review of literature pertinent to the field of KM, leadership and organizational culture. This chapter includes a critical review of numerous publications covering KM concepts and factors influencing KM. The concepts and theories of leadership and organizational culture were also reviewed. This chapter aims to identify the issues that have not been adequately explored by the previous researchers to define the most important variables that influence the research problem.

Chapter 3 presents the development of a research conceptual framework and hypotheses based on the knowledge acquired from the literature review. The Chapter also delineates the research questions formulated as a response to the identified research gaps.

This is followed by the details of the research method in chapter 4, which addresses the key issues relating to the research approach, research design, and the relevant analytical techniques adopted in this study.

Chapter 5 presents the results of the descriptive analysis based on the data collected from the questionnaire survey of Cameroonian SMEs. This chapter begins by presenting the profiles of the survey respondents, followed by the screening of the survey data to ensure that it is suitable for the subsequent multivariate statistical analysis. The preliminary findings interpreted from the survey are then presented.

This chapter also provides the details and results of the measurement scale assessment based on the descriptive data analysis. The analysis results of scale reliability are presented to assess the internal consistency of the measurement scales utilized in the survey questionnaire. Next, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) techniques are detailed and the results presented. The main purpose of CFA is to confirm whether or not the collected data fit the theoretical constructs; the EFA was conducted to refine and uncover the appropriate factor structures to establish the best possible dimensionality, reliability, and validity of these scales.

Once the reliability and validity of the measurement scales were established, multiple regression analysis was employed to test the proposed hypotheses to answer the research questions concerning the relationship among leadership behaviors, organizational culture, and KM. According to Tabachnick and Fidell (2007), multiple regression analysis is by far the most widely used in business and social sciences to explore all types of dependence relationships. Multiple regression analysis is a powerful analytical tool used to determine which specific independent variables predicts the variance of dependent variables selected by the research (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006).

Chapter 6 discusses and summarizes the research findings, highlights the contributions made by the study to the existing body of knowledge, and the implications for managerial practices. It also addresses the limitations of the study, and presents recommendations for future research. Following the reference list, supplementary information (e.g. the disseminated questionnaire) is provided in the Appendices.

 [WU1]This is not what you are doing

 [WU2]This is not how you cite within the text


 [WU4]Which firms? Sector?



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