Boko Haram crisis on the socio political Development of Nigeria ( a study of Borno state Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

This research work attempt to examine the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria and howitunderminessocio-political development,with Borno State being our casestudy.

Theworkhasfivechapters,eachchapterstructuredinanalyzingthe

BokoHaramcrisisinNigeriaandhowitaffectsthesocio-politicaldevelopmentofNigeria.Todothis,theresearcherdevelopedtwelve

(12)Questions,thesequestionswereadministeredinformofquestionnairesto400peoplewhowereselectedasasampleofthepopulationprimaryandsecondarydatawereusedasasourceofdatawhiletablesandpercentageswereusedinorganizingandpresenting

thedatacollected.ThedataanalysisrevealedthatBokoHaramcrisis

hascreatedsomanybackwardness,hatred,nationaldisintegrationandlackofunityinNigeria.TheresearcherthereforerecommendedthatforBoko Haram crisis to be prevented, the government should take

adequatemeasurestoshutdownanytrainingterroristcampsoperatedbytheBokoHaramsect.Then,thenationwillstartexperiencingpeace,

oneness,security,nationalunity,developmentandprogressforthe

bettermentofallNigerians.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THESTUDY

Overtheyears,Nigeriahasexperiencedseriesofattacksand blastinmostregionofthecountry.TheviolentagitationbyMilitantsin the NigerDeltaregion(MEND) hasoftenledto lossoflivesand propertiesotherwiseknownas“MovementforEmancipationofNiger Delta.Somanyspiritedgroupshideunderthisbodytocarryouttheir nefariousactsofrebelliongoverntheNigerianstatetoexpresstheir governances over thedegradationsoftheoperation of themultinational organization.

Similarly,therearegroupsthatexistinotherpartsofthecountry and they include;the“OduaPeoples Congress(OPC)which islocatedin theSouth-West.They areoftencalled theAfeiniferegroup. Thereexists alsothe“MovementfortheActualizationofSovereignStateofBiafra (MASSOB),in the South-Eastwhile the„Boko Haram‟ usesthe Northern part ofthecountryas theiroperationalbase.

Thisresearchstudywillcriticallyscrutinizeandevaluatethe activitiesofthelatteramongsttheabovementionedpoliticalandor

religioussects,becausethatisthethrustofthisresearch.Itcanbe deducedthatsocio-politicaldevelopmentareinstrumentaltothe incessantcrisisthathasbedeviledourbelovedcountry„Nigeria‟today. Peoplearesaidtobepoorwhentheyexperiencelackofsufficient incometopurchasematerialneedswhichoftenexcludesindividuals frompartakingingenerallyacceptedactivitiesofdailylifeinthesociety atlarge.AccordingtoALIMAZRUIinhis„ParadoxofRetardation‟,Africa isnotthepoorestoftheregionsoftheworldbutitisthemost retarded.HearguedthatAfricansarerichlyendowed;assuchthey havenoreason tobe poor.

InspitethefactthatJune10,2006marked50yearsofoil

explorationandproduction,andover&400billionaccruedtothe Nigerianstateintermsofrevenue,Nigeriaisstillreferredtoasoneof thepoorestand developingcountries in the world.

BokoHaramasthenamedenotes,doesnothaveoneparticular meaning.Thenamemoreorlessconnotesdifferentmeaningsto differentpeople.ThegroupisaNigerianIslamicgroupthatseeksthe impositionofShariaLawthroughoutthewholeofNigeria.Figuratively members of this group believe that “Western education is a sin”.

Presently,thegrouphas anundefinedstructureandchain of command. Itisofaparamountimportancetonotethattheofficialnameofthe groupis„Jama‟atuAhlisSunna,Lidda‟awaitWal-Jihad‟,whichmeans orratheristantamountto“Peoplecommittedtothepropagationofthe prophet‟steachingandJihad”.

Sinceitsformationin2002inMaiduguribytheleaderofthe

groupMohammedYusuf,theBokoHaramhasbeenathornintheflesh ofNigeria’ssecurityagencies,preciselythepoliceforce,overits oppositiontowesterneducationthatitbelievesisasin.Intheyear 2004,theIslamicfundamentalistgrouprelocateditsbasetoKanamma, YobeState.Thenewlocationwasnamed“Afghanistan”,andfrom there,the groupsetaboutattackingandleavingmembersofthe NigerianPoliceLifeless.

Almostthevariouscrisesduetobombingscarriedoutbythe

BokoHaram are:

  • TheNigeria sectarian violencein theyear 2009.
  • TheBauchi PrisonBreakon the7thofSeptember2010
  • Abujaattackon the31stof December,2010
  • NorthernNigeria bombingsonthe29thof May,2011
  • AbujaPoliceheadquartersbombingonthe16thofJune,2011.
  • BombingattheAllChristianFellowshipChurchinSuleja,Niger Stateonthe10thofJuly,201
    • BombingoftheAbujaUnitednationsBuildingonthe26th of
    1.

August,2011.

  • Damaturuattackson Friday,November4th2011.
  • St.TheresaCatholicChurchattackinMadallaatSuleja,Niger Stateonthe25thofDecember201
    • Kanoattackson20thofJanuary,2012
    1.
  • SuicidebombingattheArmyHeadquartersinKadunaonthe8th of February,2012.Just tomentionbutafew.

Inconclusive,havingsaidalltheseatthisjuncture,thisresearch workwillcriticallyanalyzethetwoconceptsi.e.Socio-political developmentandBokoHaramin order tocreateabetter understanding inthemindsofthereadersandmoreso,tocontributetoexisting knowledgeof literature.

1.2      STATEMENT OFTHE PROBLEM

ItisnolongernewsthattheactivitiesoftheBokoHaramand othersimilarpoliticalandorreligioussectshaveoftenledtolossof properties,lives,andeventhebreakdownoflawsandorder,peaceand securityintheNigeriansocietyatlarge.Ithasbeenobservedthatalot ofattackshavebeenmadeontomanystates,whichincludeeventhe FederalCapitalTerritory,Abuja and Borno State.

What puzzles most observers is the fact that most of these

attacksarenotcarriedoutbysuicidebombersyettheculpritsoftenget awayunharmed.Thisleavesabigquestionmarkinoursecurity agenciesasregardstotheirdutyintheprotectionoflivesand properties,andtheprocurementofweaponsofmassdestructionto combatthismenacewhichiseatingdeepintotheNigeriansociety today.

Withoutbeingsaid, BokoHaramcrisisdonothaveanyadvantage insteaditisaviciousandnefariousactcarriedoutbyindividualsfor theirselfishdesires,themotivatingfactorbeingtocontrolthereligious andpoliticalpower.

However,itistheabove stated problemsthatinstigated the researcherintoinvestigatingonthetopictheimpactofBokoHaramon theSocio-politicaldevelopmentofNigeria”usingBornoStateasacase study.

1.3      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

ThemainthrustofthisstudyistodetermineBokoHaramcrisis andthesocio-politicaldevelopmentofNigeriatoachievethis,the researcherhas thefollowingobjectives as it points.

  1. Tofind outif thereareBokoHaram crisis inNigeria.
  • ToascertaintheremoteandimmediatecausesofbokoHaram crisisin Nigeria.
  • Toascertainthesocio-PoliticalandreligiousimplicationofBoko Haram crisisin Nigeria.
  • Tomakesuggestionstothefederalgovernmentonhowtotackle theBokoHaram crisis.
  • TodeterminethewaysinwhichtheNigeriacitizenscanserveas

ahelpinghandin tacklingtheBokoHaram crisisin Nigeria

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF THESTUDY

Therearenumerousreasonswhythisresearchisuseful,the researchworkwouldbeofgreatimportancetostudentsandlecturesin practiceofhowtocarryoutfurtherresearchinthesamearea.Itwill helpthegovernmenttosolvesomelikelyproblemsthatmight encounterin termsofdevelopmentinNigeria.

Also,theresearchwillactasaguidetothegovernmentintheir questtoquelltheproblemsassociatedwithsecurity,ethniccrisisand politicalor religiouscrisisinNigeria.

1.5      RESEARCHQUESTIONS

Opinionsarehoweverdividedoverthepropellingfiringofthis group.Ithasindeedinabidtoeradicatetheseincessantchaosand destructionwhichhasoftenledtolossofassets,thattheresearcher which toposit someresearchquestions.Thus:

  1. Aretherereally BokoHaramcrisisinNigeria?
  • WhataretheremoteandimmediatecausesofBokoHaramcrisis in Nigeria?
  • Whatarethesocio-politicalandreligiousimplicationsofBoko Haram crisisin Nigeria?
  • Whatsuggestioncanyougivetothefederalgovernmenttohelp

tackletheBokoharam crisis?

  • WhatwaycantheNigeriacitizenhelptotackletheBokoHaram crisisin Nigeria?

1.6      SCOPE ANDLIMITATIONOFTHESTUDY

Thescopeofthisresearchstudyisquitebroadthatit encompassestheinvestigationofBokoHaramcrisisinBorno State and Nigeriat largefromthe year2002tilldate.This is becauseofits spontaneousnature.

Inviewofthelimitationsofthisstudy,variousfactorscontributed

inaffectingtheresearcher’scomprehensivenessandtotalityincarrying outthestudy.Amongthesefactorsinclude,scarcityofrelevant materialsontheissueduetoitscontinuousevolvingnature,financial constraints,somequestionnaireadministeredwerenotreturnedand mostoftherespondentsfailedtorespondtosomeimportantquestions andothertaskingcampusengagementsandthefactthatthecrisiswas stilloccurringat theperiodofresearch.

Despitetheabovementionedshortcomingsandhindrances,the research studynodoubtturned out tobe successful.

1.7      OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONOFTERMS/CONCEPT

COHESION:     Theartor stateofstickingtogether.

SPIRITED:Dealswithhavingorshowingmettle,courage, vigor,energy anddetermination.

NEFARIOUS:    Being wicked.

DEGRADATION:Asituationinwhichsomebodyhaslostallself- respectandtherespectofotherpeople.Itis alsotheprocessof somethingbeingdamagedor made worse.

BEDEVILED:Tocausealotofproblemsforsomebodyor something over alongperiod of time.

TANTAMOUNT:Having thesamebadeffect as something else.

AGITATION:Toarguestronglyforsomethingyouwant, especiallyforchangesinalaw,insocial conditions,etc.

RETARDATION:       Anoffensivewayofdescribingsomebody

whoisnotintelligentorwhohasnot developednormally.

DEVELOPMENT:       Theactorprocessofbringingtoamore

advancedstate,growth,progress,etc.It isalsothegradualgrowthofsomethingso thatitbecomesmoreadvanced,stronger, etc.

VICIOUS:       Fullofhatredandanger,savages,evil,

etc.

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