INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE ON SELF-IMAGE, GROUP BEHAVIOUR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN-WEST LOCAL GOVERMENT, KWARA STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study was designed to find out the influence of social media usage on self-image, group
behaviour and academic performance among senior secondary school students in Ilorin-West
Local Government, Kwara State. The study used ex-post factor design. Purposive and simple
random samplings were used to select the sample. Four senior secondary schools with a total
population of 1,660 and a sample size of 310 students were drawn and used for the study.
Two questionnaires were used for the study: Social Media, Self-Image, Group Behaviour,
Questionnaire [SSGBQ] and English Language and Mathematics Test [EMT]. Six research
hypotheses were raised and tested. Pearson r, t-test, chi-square and ANOVA tools were used
for the statistical analysis. The result shows that there is positive correlation between social
media usage and self-image, positive correlation exists between social media usage and group
behaviour. The finding shows there is no correlation between social media usage and
academic performance. The result also shows significant difference between male and female
in social media usage. Recommendations were that: Students should be conscious of the time
they spend on social media sites in order to have more time for their classroom activities and
homework. Teachers should encourage the students to expend some meaningful hours on
social media sites so as to make friends that would help increase their self-image. The
comments of these friends are better to boost their self-images and enhance group behaviuor.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
The rapid growth of social media usage that has been observed over the last two to three
years is indicative of its entry into mainstream culture and its integration into the daily lives
of many people. In parallel with this, there has also been considerable media coverage of the
growth of social media usage, its potential positive outcomes and concerns about the way that
some individuals are engaging with it.
Social media sites offer people new and varied ways to communicate via the internet,
whether through their PC or their mobile phone. They allow people to easily and simply
create their own online page or profile and to construct and display an online network of
contacts, often called ‘friends’. Users of these sites can communicate via their profile both
with their ‘friends’ and with people outside their list of contacts. This can be on a one-to-one
basis (much like an email), or in a more public way such as a comment posted for all to see.
Social media sites, such as Facebook, 2go, Twitter, Skype, Viber, Whatsapp and MySpace
are primary focus of this study.
Of recent, social media has become a way for people to communicate in society and build
relationships with others. With the increase of technology used for communication has
become a way of life on internet. Social media has become an activity that is done primarily
on the Internet, with sites like MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, 2go, Africhat, Tango, Viber
Bebo, Whatsapp, Mozat, Friendster, and Xanga.
Secondary school students have always paid a lot of attention to the presentation of self on
social media sites. It seems that for most secondary school students creating networks and
online content is an integral mode for the management of identity, lifestyle, and social
relations. Secondary school students point at the opportunities for self-expression, sociability,
community involvement, creativity and group belongings.
The tendency of a student to join a social media community is influenced by both the
number of friends he or she has within the community, and more crucially how those friends
are connected to one another. Members of a smaller, private group usually have higher
engagement than members of a large, public one. The more groups a person belongs to the
less likely that they would be heavily involved in all of them.
Students want to express themselves, are socially highly interactive and mobilise around
issues very quickly like environmental and social issues such as the Tsunami. Arab’s
revolutions, Big Brother Africa, Sports world, World economy recess, Technology, and so
forth.
Computer access and use among Nigerian secondary school students have grown
exponentially over the past decade (Becker, 2000). More than 48% of Nigerian youth 12 to
17 years of age use the Internet, and nearly half log on daily (Lenhart, Madden, &Hitlin,
2005). Once connected, adolescents engage in a wide variety of social media behaviours,
including doing schoolwork, playing games, shopping, downloading music, text messaging
and chatting and so forth. Secondary school students use the Internet primarily for social
reasons (Gross, 2004; Roberts, Foehr, &Rideout, 2005). The Internet has become a virtual
meeting place where secondary school students hang out with their peers to pass time.
Social media group behaviour emanates from the causes that contribute to the group’s
effectiveness. The well-structured, well defined role and status hierarchy, able leadership,
well developed norms and strong cohesiveness a group has, the greater is the group think. As
groups function and interact with other groups, they develop their own unique set of
characteristics including structure, cohesiveness, roles, norms and processes. As a result,
groups may cooperate or compete with other groups, and intergroup competition can lead to
conflict.
Students join group on social media in order to reduce the insecurity that they face in real
world. They feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they
are part of a group. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides
recognition and status for its members. Groups can provide its members with feelings of selfworth.
That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can
also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. What cannot be
achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in
numbers. There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task;
there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job
Secondary school students spend much of their hours hanging out with friends on social
media sites and spend less time studying, thus explaining their lower performance. This idea
is called the displacement hypothesis, and has been examined by early television researchers
who posited that television took away students’ study time (Hornik, 1999). Studies of
students’ extracurricular activities instead suggest that new media, such as Facebook, replace
or enhance other leisure activities, but do not take away time from students (Roberts&Foehr,
2008).
Whether at school, at home, or on the go, today’s adolescent students are surrounded by
digital media such as computers and the Internet, video games, mobile phones, and other
handheld devices. The World Wide Web (WWW) was launched in 1989, providing standards
that allowed local computer networks to connect with each other and make it easier for users
to sort through the growing mass of information available online. In the relatively brief
period since the advent of the WWW, the Internet has had a significant impact on nearly
every important area of modern life. The last decade the daily experience of adolescents has
been transformed by developments in technology, including the computer, the Internet, and
cell phones. The Internet has become an increasingly important factor in the lives of most
adolescents, particularly as a medium of communication and social connection.
Although the growth of social technology has been dramatic, to say the least; the most
popular website in the world currently is Facebook, a social networking website with more
than 500 million registered users worldwide. A large majority of these users are adolescents
or young people, labeled the “Millennial Generation” by the PEW Internet and American Life
Project (PEW, 2010).
The recent 2010-2013 WAEC and NECO results of the senior secondary school students
showed that the students themselves have a good share of the blame for the woeful
performances recorded in WAEC and Senior School Certificate examinations. Since the
advent of the social media like mobile phones, Blackberry, Facebook, Twitter and others. The
Nigerian youth have become so addicted to these gadgets that they no longer have time for
reading and preparing for their examinations. Also, the use of the social media short
messaging system or texting language which permits all kinds of acronyms or abbreviated
words has corrupted many that they sometimes assume that it is normal to use such forms of
expression in real situations like examination.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Secondary school students are increasingly utilizing these social media sites for friends’ news
feeds, personal updates, events and activities, notes, and messages. The linkage between
students on social media sites has opened up channels of communication with people that one
may not have the opportunity to meet face-to-face. The voluntary messaging function,
commonly known as “status” on Facebook, Whatsapp, Viber, 2go and Myspace and Twitter,
allows real-time instant messaging anytime and anywhere in the world.
It is recorded that at least four million, three hundred and twelve thousand and four hundred
Nigerians are on Facebook, with a good number of them being secondary school students
(Facebook statistics, 2012). Their participation on internet greatly impact on various aspect of
life. This study examines the influence of social media usage on self-image, group behaviour
and academic achievement of among secondary school students in Ilorin-West.
Social media provides an easy way to receive feedback and communicate with students.
Social media sites empower users to take an active role in their own socialization process and
in constructing their own self-identity. A personal profile is the way users present themselves;
they can include as much information as desired about themselves, including posting pictures.
Due to digital technology, users can show considerable information about themselves and
their friends. This self-disclosure is a way to use of social media, open up their own identities
of how they want others to perceive them. Intimate self-disclosures help produce greater
intimacy in computer-mediated communication than in face-to-face contacts. Producing an
attractive personal profile for others to admire is a way to improve self-image.
The closeness of students to the social media sites has made them to expend several hours
of their time on sites of internet. This social media sites have dramatically changed the
attitude and behaviour of adolescent students of secondary schools towards their academic
performance.
The ease of online participation may lead to weaker school ties, because students have less
reason to leave their schools and actually interact with other people on social media. The
social media allows people to easily form and sustain friendships. This act has made some
students to lose focus on their studies. Their discussion about social media activities like how
many friends they keep, discussion about latest music, discussion about their points they earn
and their status on 2go and other have made to forget about their studies. This social media
participation has consumed most hours the students supposed to be in classroom receiving
lectures or be in library reading. At homes, they spent hours chatting on their mobile phones
without doing homework or reading which seriously affect their academic performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study.
The followings are the objectives of the study.

  1. To investigate the influence of social media usage on self-image.
  2. To investigate the influence of social media usage on group behaviours.
  3. To examine the influence of social media usage on academic performance.
  4. To investigate the relationship between self-image and group behaviour.
  5. To find out if there is age difference in social media usage.
  6. To find out if there is gender difference in social media usage.
    1.4 Research Questions
  7. What is the influence of social media usage on self-image?
  8. What is the influence of media usage on group behaviours?
  9. What is the influence of social media usage on academic performance?
  10. What is the relationship between self-image on group behaviour?
  11. What is the age difference in social media usage?
  12. What is the gender difference in social media usage?
    1.5 Hypotheses
  13. There is no significant relationship between social media usage and self-image.
  14. There is no significant relationship between social media usage and group behaviours.
  15. There is no significant relationship between social media usage and academic
    performance.
  16. There is no significant relationship between self-image and group behaviour.
  17. There is no significant age difference in social media usage.
  18. There is no significant gender difference in social media usage.
  19. 1.6 Basic Assumptions of the Study
    This study assumes that:
  20. Social media usage impacts on the self-image and group behaviours of adolescent
    students
  21. students participate in social media networking in order to feed some needs.
  22. social media messages and adds are targeted at behaviour modification.
  23. social medial can have positive and negative impact on academic performance.
    1.7 Significance of the Study
    The study is significant to students, teachers, parents policy makers on the current trends in
    social media world, in the following ways.
    The study will help the students to know that social media can help them improve their selfimage
    and academic performance if used judiciously.
    The study will help the teachers to gain additional knowledge on the current issues in social
    media usage by the students and find the appropriate measures in helping students to
    maximise gain on these media for academic attainment.
    It will also open the eyes of the parents to the challenges encountered by their students in
    social media usage in relation to their physical and cognitive development and the levels of
    their performance in education.
    This study will be useful to the policy makers on how to design social media sites that suit
    education of these students for educational purpose and control the access to bad social media
    sites that affect students’ educational attainment.
    This study will also create a platform for further research in this field and how it affects
    spheres of life.
    1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
    The study is restricted to the influence of social media usage on self-image and group
    behaviours among students in four secondary schools in Ilorin-West Local Government,
    Kwara State. Particularly, the study is focused on students’ usage of social media and how it
    influences their self-image, group behaviours and academic performance. For the purpose of
    this research, four senior secondary schools were purposefully selected from the list of
    secondary schools in Ilorin-West Local Government. The study only covered senior
    secondary schools. The reason is that the cyber cafes are situated in the state capital and computer laboratories are in these senior secondary schools. The study is delimited to senior secondary school students of Ilorin-West Local Government Area, Kwara State.

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