THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION ON LOCAL BEVERAGE MADE FROM GRAINS IN KARU LGA OF NASARAWA STATE

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ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

“Burukutu” is a local beverage made mainly from cereal crops which are grown locally mostly in northern parts of Nigeria. Burukutu is a popular alcoholic beverage of a vinegar-like flavour prepared from sorghum grains (Kolawole et al., 2007). It is widely consumed as food (because it is thick and heavy) in the rural areas of northern Nigeria and in poor urban neighborhoods because it is more affordable than commercially brewed beer. The percentage alcohol content of Burukutu is between 3-6% (Taofeek, Ganiyat, Oluwayemisi, Azeemat, Aisha & 2014).

Burukutu has been reported to contain vitamins, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, calcium, 26.7 g starch, and 5.9 g of protein per liter (Egemba and Etuk, 2007).

Here in Karu LGA of Nasarawa State, Karu specifically. The name varies within the indigene and surrounding tribes, in which the Gbagy tribe called it “likka”, Gwandara and Gad people called it “Baeze” while Hausa called it “Burukutu”.

Traditionally, burukutu is brewed with red or white sorghum variety and/or maize malts (Lyumugabe et al., 2012). It has a sour taste resulting from the action of the lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp.) and opaque colour because of suspended solid and yeast materials (Adewara and Ogunbanwo, 2013; Ogunbanwo et al., 2013) with thin consistency. Burukutu is consumed among the indigenous people of the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria and other African countries including Ghana and Benin (Augustine, Christian, and Ikotobong, 2016). Its brewing process involves malting, mashing, boiling, fermentation and maturation (Lyumagbe et al., 2012). The microorganismsassociated with the fermentation of burukutu include Sacchromyces cerevisiae, Sacchromyceschaveliera, Leuconostoc mensenteroides and Candida acetobacter (Augustine, Christian, and Ikotobong, 2016). Several studies on burukutu and its raw materials have been reported (Lyumugabe et al., 2012; Adewara and Ogunbanwo, 2013). Unfortunately, burukutu is considered a low social statusbeverage culturally in traditional African societies. People who consume it are regarded as socialmisfits who cannot afford the cost of the European-style brewed beverage types.

The method of preparation of this local beverage is sometimes by mixture of any of these two crops, (millet and maize, guinea corn and millet, and any of the single crops mentioned). According to (Obiolor, 1986) he said the local alcoholic beverage is traditionally made “Nigerian alcoholic beverages from guinea corn, millet, and maize”. While (Banizoetal l987) said that burukutu, beer has a pleasant sour taste and thin consistency, which has 2.8-4%v/v of alcoholic depending on the duration of fermentation.

However there are other fermented non-alcoholic beverage such as; “pap”, is a smooth creamy free flowing thin porridge which is obtained by fermentation of millet, guinea corn and maize. It is also traditional staple cereal product and the first native food given to babies at weaning.

ACHI 1990, another example “kunuZaki”, is of non-alcoholic beverages prepared from fermented guinea corn, millet, maize or any mixture of the two cereals. This is common in northern part of the Nigeria. As its taste varies depending on the mode of preparation.

The major problem associated with the traditional production of burukutu includes non-availability of potable water, most often local brewers depends on untreated water supplied by hawkers and such water could be a potential vehicle for the spread and contamination of the brew with pathogenic microorganisms. The processing areas are filthy and in some cases are located near toilet. Utensils, cups and other measuring devices such as calabash are not properly washed after use or before serving customers. Other problems include uncontrolled fermentation processes (Olaniyi Oladiti Oladipo, Adeleke Bartholomew Saanu, Akinyele Bamidele Juliet and Ibitoye Olukayode Adebola, 2018). 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The major problem associated with the traditional production of burukutu includes non- availability of potable water, most often local brewers depend on untreated water supplied by hawkers and such water could be a potential vehicle for the spread and contamination of the brew with pathogenic microorganisms.

 The processing area are filthy and in some cases located near toilet, utensils cup and other measuring devices such as calabash are not properly washed after use or before serving customers.

Other problems include uncontrolled fermentation processes which often lead to the production of very poor quality of burukutu due to excessive fermentation period.

The brewing conditions (excessive fermentation period and temperature) favor acetic fermentation and oxidative spoilage of burukutu, leading to the production of harsh and vinegary products, low temperature fermentation and storage is not practiced(Lynn,. Alibe, Brisca and N. De, 2014).

Low temperature fermentation and storage which is not practiced should have been the best approach to solve the problem.

This research was carried out to evaluated the microbiological status and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria associated with burukutu beverage sold in community ofMasakaAngwanJabawith a view to establish its biosafety and possible health hazard.

1.3 Objective of the Study

  • To access the awareness of the people on the effect of consumption of the local beverage “Burukutu” on health.
  • To identify factors that lead to the contamination of the process of preparation of the local beverages “Burukutu”.
  • To identify some health problems associated with the consumption of the local beverages “Burukutu”
  • To proffer healthy solution to the process of preparation, consumption and sale of the local beverage “Burukutu”

1.4 Research Question

  • What are the ways of creating awareness on the effect of the local beverage“Burukutu” on health?
  • What are the factors leading to the contamination of the local beverage “Burukutu”?
  • What are some of the health problems associated with the consumption of the local beverages “Burukutu”
  • What are the hygienic ways of preparation of the local beverages “Burukutu”?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The demand for consumption of health promoting foods is growing worldwide due to the increased awareness of consumers on the impact of food on health. Traditional fermented foods prepared from cereals such as maize, rice, millet, or sorghum are common in Africa.

Fermentation of these cereal grains by traditional methods exploit mixed cultures of various beneficial microorganisms, referred to as probiotics. The improved knowledge of functional aspects of these foods are related to the interactions of bioactive living cells with the host or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of bioactive molecules released during fermentation such as dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and fungi are the major (Achi and Asamudo, 2019).

Microorganisms often encountered together in the production of beverages and fermented foods. The beneficial effects of probiotic consumption include improvement of intestinal health by the regulation of microbiota, stimulation and development of the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, alleviation of lactose intolerance symptoms, and reducing the risk of certain other diseases. African cereal fermented foods could provide an abundant opportunity available for it to be made more functional by incorporating probiotic LAB strains with disease-specific functions and could also facilitate the understanding of when to use probiotics for specific pathological states (Achi and Asamudo, 2019).

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research is restricted to the effect of microbial contamination on local beverages made from Guinea corn, millet and maize.

In Karu LGA of Nasarawa State. These researched cover the entire Karu District in Karu local government area of Nasarawa State.

1.7 Area of the Study

This research is carried out specifically in Karu LGA council of Nasarawa state.Karu is a district made up of so many tribe ethnic groups and religions which makes the population of the district heterogeneous because of the proximity of the district to Abuja city. This can have a multiplier effect of food borne diseases in the inhabitant of the city.

The district is made up of six (6) Settlements which are New Karu, Ado Kasa,AngwanJaba, Ado Gbagyi, New Nyanya, AngwanJikwoyi this district is indigenously owned by the Gbagyi, Gwandara and Gada people.

1.8 Definition of Terms

  • Micro-organism – is a microscopic organism which may exist in its single cell.
  • Effect a changes which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause
  • Beverages – a liquid to consume usually, excluding water a drink, this may includes tea, coffee, liquor, beer, milk, juice or soft drink
  • Cereal – a cereal is any grass cultivated (grown)for the edible component of its  grain composed of the endosperm, germ and bran
  • Burukutu –burukutu is an alcoholic beverage brewed from the grains of guinea-corn and millet
  • Kunuzaki –Kunuzaki is a popular dink from the northern part of Nigeria this drink has two form depending on the main  ingredient used  Kunuzaki from millet and KunuGyada from rice  pound, sweet potatoes and ginger


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