USES AND GRATIFICATIONS OF RADIO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES BY SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NORTHEAST GEO-POLITICAL REGION,NIGERIA

107

Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to investigate why senior secondary school students in the Northeast region use radio educational programmes and the gratification they derive. Other purposes were to identify the existing radio educational programmes available to students and to also survey their level of awareness of these programmes. The specific objective was to provide rationale for the use of radio educational programmes in the implementation of senior secondary school’s curriculum in the Northeast. The survey research design was used to collect data, utilizing questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion instruments. The study was anchored on the Uses and Gratifications theory. The K-S test formula was used to test the hypothesis of the research. The findings of the study revealed the existing radio educational programmes available to students in the area studied to include Schools Challenge, Children Half Hour, Manyan Gobe,Science for Beginners, Mathematics for Senior Secondary Schools, Yara Manyan Gobe in Hausa, NdurisoIllumoLajibnyo in Fulfude, Children Half Hour, IlmintarDayara and Don Motasa. The students are very aware of these programmes and they use them for different reasons such as entertainment, education, socialization and companionship. Some of the gratifications they derive include enhancement of reading skill, speaking skills, grades, understanding general knowledge, analytical skill and evaluation skill. The quiz format was found to be the preferred format among students in the packaging of radio educational programmes directed at senior secondary schools. Some of the challenges they faced in using these programmes include lack of access to radio sets, ignorance of the benefits inherent in radio educational programmes and non-inclusion of these programmes in schools lesson plans. The study, therefore, recommended that free transistor radio sets be distributed to students and schools. It also recommended that there should be awareness campaign on the benefits of radio programmes to students as well as the inclusion of radio educational programmes in the lessons plans of schools.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
Radio educational programmes have been given considerable importance in many countries as a means of improving access to education (Reddi, 2003). It has been used in schools to increase both efficiency and effectiveness of learning. In a study carried out by Nwaerondu& Thompson (1989) titled “The Use of Educational Radio in Developing Countries: Lessons from the Past,” the study recorded that radio educational programmes have been used extensively in developing countries to support teaching and learning in a wide range of subject areas. The research noted that radio educational programmes are employed within a wide variety of instructional design contexts, sometimes supported by the use of printed materials, local discussion groups, and regional study centres. They are sometimes designed to permit and encourage listeners to react, comment, ask questions and send feedback.
Up to the beginning of the 20th century, the school has been the primary source of knowledge. Today, with an increasing population, there are more students that crave for the available schools and colleges than ever before. This calls for alternative ways to supplement the conventional school system. Educational stakeholders are no longer tied to the conventional school setting. Rather, educational broadcasting, especially radio programmes, are used to bring the students into contact with a wide range of learning experiences. This was the case with the establishment of the British Broadcasting Empire Service, which was originally inaugurated in 1932 to foster economic, political and cultural relations between British and its colonies (National Broadcasting Corporation, 2014). But, in 1933, after realising the role of broadcasting within the educational field, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) transmitted the first educational programme to her West Africa and
overseas service. The first Nigeria educational radio broadcast programmes were for English language via the Radio Redistribution Service under the Post and Telegraphs Department (Adegbiji, Fakomogbon & Adebayo, 2013). In 1957, the Nigeria Broadcast Service was established, which eventually took over the transmission of educational programmes (Abimbade, 2006). According to Adegbiji et al. (2013, p. 280):
…renewed demands and requests by the various interest groups for the expansion of the Nigeria Broadcast Service (NBS) to cover the entire nation led the ancient colonial administration to invite Richard Postgonte (an ex-head of BBC School Broadcasts) to look into the possibility of introducing an educational radio service in Nigeria. It was his report that brought about the establishment of a school broadcast unit in the Nigeria Broadcasting Service and by 1957 the NBS has been transformed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation.
It can be argued that the full incorporation of broadcasting into formal and conventional education in Nigeria came handy in 1959 when Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the first television station in the Western Region. One of the major reasons for the establishment of the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) was to use television as a surrogate teacher, particularly in rural areas where government at that time lacked sufficient teaching staff to achieve the free education policy of the Western Regional Government (Folarin, 1998). On the issue of inadequate of qualified teachers, Nwadiani (1995) and Aghenta (2001), in their studies, found that teachers are almost always in short supply in Nigerian schools and their turnover is high because they tend to leave the teaching profession if and when more attractive jobs become available elsewhere. Commenting on these points, Adeyemi (2008) explained that many teachers leave the teaching profession due to discouragement and frustration resulting from low social status accorded the teaching profession in the society. Also, in Northeast Nigeria the educational sector has been impeded by the devastation of Boko Haram and its attack on western education. For example, a report by the Education Policy and Data Centre of FHI 360 (formerly known as Family Health International), a non-profit human development organisation, reveals the continuous challenges of school participation across Nigeria with emphasis on the Northeast whose educational sector has suffered even more setbacks (Hatch, 2012).
The challenges of inadequate qualified teachers, insecurity and infrastructural deficiency made the broadcast media, particularly radio, a handy tool for supplementing the conventional or classroom-based education system in the provision of access to education to the vast majority of Nigerians yearning for formal education. As noted by Dike (2012), broadcast media, as educational delivery tool, has the feature to distribute signal to several audiences, who are located at different places at the same time. It has the characteristic to present information and event with a sense of immediacy at the same time it is unfolding. Broadcast media have universal value because they can break the barrier of literacy and social class, as their signals do not discriminate human beings on the basis of socio-economic and educational backgrounds. In terms of flexibility, broadcast media allow different times to adapt to daily lifestyle of the audience (students) so that learners can use them at their convenience. They are useful in giving a sense of reality in subject content conceptualisation. They provide necessary condition whereby learners can capture and relay actualities and real-life experiences with audio-visual equipment rather than just telling or describing them abstractly. Broadcast media provide access to information at low cost. For instance, it is economical to convey knowledge, since a single teacher could teach millions of learners simultaneously nationwide/globally. Radio and television sets are cheap, when compared to computer sets/systems and less cumbersome to handle worldwide. They help to preserve expert teaching skills of teachers on audio and video for later use.
Annaith (2012) observed that the use of radio and television promote developmental objectives and can be aired to enhance good quality education in literacy, problem solving, skill acquisition value, attitudes and other range of knowledge to a large section of the population. According to Yusuf (2002), broadcast media have the capacity of presenting
vividly physical teaching because of its audio-visual nature, and thus have great direct and indirect influence on the audiences making learning active, more motivating, more concrete, more efficient and more effective. Broadcast media provide possible close-up magnification of small objects. Components, intricate mechanisms, diagrams, and so on, give students a “front-row-sent” message.
According to Adegbiji et al. (2013), the use of broadcast-media in education was initially limited to primary, secondary schools and teacher’s training colleges. But, with the assistance of the United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, in 1962 established an Audio-Visual Unit. The institute’s workshops were related to the use of audio-visuals and established a closed-circuit television (CCTV) for teaching education related courses. Olumorin (2006) observed that, right form that time, other tertiary institutions in the country have taken steps to integrate the use of broadcast media in teaching and learning at various levels.
Among the broadcast media available, radio appeared to be more in use in educational delivery. Evaluation of communication programmes, projects, and experiments have repeatedly shown that radio can be used to teach learners as well as present new concepts and information (Gaida& Searle, 1980; White, 1976, 1977; Leslie, 1978; Jamison & McAnany, 1978; Byram, Kaute, &Matenge, 1980; Hall, &Dodds, 1977; McAnany, 1976). In this regard, Sweeney and Parlato (1982, p. 13) concluded that “… radio plays an effective educational role both as the sole medium or in conjunction with print and group support.” For example, Nwaerondu& Thompson (1989) recorded that in a project for teaching Mathematics by radio to school children in primary grades in Nicaragua, students who were taught through radio lessons achieved significantly higher scores in the final evaluation than those taught through regular, face-to-face, classroom instruction. Rural students, tested against rural control groups, benefitted more than urban students tested against urban control groups. The project evaluators hypothesised that radio lessons were particularly effective in raising the level of knowledge of those who knew least which, in this case, were the rural students.
Because of the importance of radio educational programmes in education, Ephraim (2014) carried out a study on educational broadcasting and academic performance among secondary school students in Lafia metropolis. Similarly, Ekanem (2006) carried out a study on mass media exposure and content utilization by senior secondary school teachers in Akwa-Ibom State. It is, therefore, necessary to study the uses and gratifications of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Radio educational programmes are programmes produced and aired by radio stations to educate their target audience. These programmes have the capacity to take education to the hard-to-reach segments of the society. They have also been used as a means of improving quality of instruction. Because of their importance, different countries, including Nigeria, introduced them for different levels of education—primary, secondary schools. For example, all the radio stations in Nigeria have one or more educational programmes targeted at school population. Similarly, radio stations in Northeast Nigeria have also produced series of educational programmes packaged and broadcast for the consumption of senior secondary school students within their communities. Some of these programmes include: Mathematics for SSS aired by Yobe State Broadcasting Corporation (YBC FM), Yara Manyan Gobe by Ray Power FM Gombe, Schools’ Challenge by Bauchi Radio Corporation (BRC FM). These programmes adopt different formats, such as drama, quiz, debate, documentary, interviews, classroom teaching, docu-drama et cetera.
Previous researchers on the uses of radio programmes for the purpose of education have focused their studies more on what the programmes do to their audience. Some of these
studies included that of Ephraim, 2014; Nwaerondu& Thompson, 1989;Gaida& Searle, 1980; White, 1976, 1977; Leslie, 1978; Jamison &McAnay, 1978; Byram, Kaute, &Matenge, 1980; Hall &Dodds, 1977; McAnany, 1976. However, very few researchers have delved into investigating what the audience do with the programmes and what they gain from the uses of these programmes (Musa, Azmi, & Ismail, 2015; Ekanem, 2006). Despite the fact that Musa, Azmi, and Ismail’s (2015) study focused on exploring the uses and gratifications theory in the use of social media among the students of mass communication in Nigeria and Ekanem’s (2006) study focused on the mass media exposure and content utilization by secondary school teachers in Awka-Ibom State, not much is known about the uses of radio educational programmes among senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria. More so, no study, to the best of my knowledge has established the existing radio educational programmes available to students in Northeast Nigeria and the gratifications they derive from the use of these programmes.
This research gap creates uncertainty regarding the uses of radio educational programmes among students in Northeast Nigeria and the gratifications they derive from the use of these programmes. The region is currently plagued with incessant attack on Western education by the dreaded Boko Haram. Therefore, the specific objective of this study is to provide rationale for the use of radio educational programmes in the implementation of senior secondary school curriculum in the Northeast. Consequently, this study investigates why senior secondary school students in the Northeast use radio educational programmes and the gratification they derive from the use of these programmes.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the uses and gratifications of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. identify the radio educational programmes available to senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria;
  2. assess the level of awareness of radio educational programmes among senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria;
  3. discuss possible reasons why senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria use radio educational programmes;
  4. describe the various gratifications senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria derive from the use of radio educational programmes; and
  5. discuss the possible challenges that affect the use of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria and how these challenges can be resolved.
    1.4 Research Questions
    The study seeks to specifically answer the following research questions:
  6. What are the existing radio educational programmes for senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria?
  7. What is the level of awareness of radio educational programmes among senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria?
  8. For what reasons do senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria use radio educational programmes?
  9. What gratifications do senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria derive from the uses of radio educational programmes?
  10. What are the challenges that affect the uses of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria and how can they be resolved?
    1.5 Research Hypothesis
    The hypothesis formulated to guide the study:
    H01: Senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria do not derive any gratifications from the uses of radio educational programmes.
    1.6 Significance of the Study
    The findings of this study could be significant to educational broadcasting educators, broadcast stations, school administrators, curriculum planners, state governments, federal government and the society at large. The study may be considered significant in a number of ways.
    First, and most importantly, the study serves as a contribution to the body of existing literature on media and education, particularly in the aspect of educational broadcasting. In this case, the long bibliographic references will benefit those who may embark on a similar or related study in the future. It will guide further studies on the existing radio educational programmes available to senior secondary school students in the Northeast, what use they make of the programmes and the kind of gratifications they derive from using the programmes.
    Radio stations in Nigeria will benefit immensely from this research as it provides a guide towards improving effectiveness in the packaging of subsequent educational broadcast programmes directed at senior secondary school students. The study provides producers, broadcasters and sponsors of radio educational programmes a true assessment of the uses and gratifications senior secondary school students derive from radio educational programmes. It also helps them to know the various challenges confronting the success of the programmes and ways of overcoming these challenges.
    The government at different levels (federal, state and local) may also find this research useful in that they may be exposed to the benefits inherent in educational broadcasting. They may also be able to determine how to adopt educational broadcasting in the different forms of education—formal, semi-formal and no-formal education programmes. Finally, curriculum planners may also find the research very useful in the sense that they will be able to make adequate provision for the use of educational broadcasting in the implementation of different sections of the curriculum.
    1.7 Scope of the Study
    This study examines the uses and gratifications of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identifies the radio educational programmes available to senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria. It assesses the level of awareness of radio educational programmes among senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria. The possible reasons senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria use radio educational programmes are discussed in the study. The work describes the various gratifications senior secondary school students in Northeast, Nigeria, derive from the use of radio educational programmes. Finally, the study discusses the challenges that affect the use of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria and how these challenges can be resolved.
    Consequently, the study focuses on some selected senior secondary schools in Bauchi, Yobe and Gombe. These states were purposively chosen based on ease of access. Respondents for the study were drawn from among the students in SS1, SS2 and SS3 in the 2017/2018 academic session. Uses and gratifications’ study primarily consider the audience as active and goal-oriented in their media use. Therefore, the choice of these category of students stems from the fact that secondary school students who are usually within the age brackets of 13 to 19 commonly referred to as “teenage” are assumed to be better developed physiologically and psychologically to assimilate media content discriminately than their counterparts in nursery, primary and junior secondary schools.
    1.8 Area of the Study
    The study area is the Northeast Geo-Political Region, comprising Bauchi, Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, Gombe and Taraba. However, due to the vast nature of the area and ease of reaching there by the researcher, the study was purposively delimited to three selected states in the Northeast Nigeria, namely, Bauchi, Yobe and Gombe.
    1.9 Limitations of the Study
    This study, like other empirical studies, was faced with certain challenges. Firstly, convincing students to fill the questionnaire was one of the challenges encountered during this study. Most of the students misconstrued the questionnaire for examination thereby making it difficult to gain their co-operation. However, the essence of the study was explained to them and they were also assured that no one was going to rate their performance. At the end, the required number of students was obtained and copies of the questionnaire were admitted.
    Secondly, language constituted another big barrier during the period of data collection. Students in some of the public schools sampled had difficulties expressing themselves in English language. However, the assistance of teachers in those schools were sought who helped to read and interpret the contents of the questionnaire to them. Also,translators were used during the Focus Group Discussion sessions in some of the selected schools.
    1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
    Uses and Gratifications: Uses denotes the reasons for the consumption of radio educational programmes by senior secondary school students in the Northeast. Gratifications focuses on the benefits they derive from the uses of these programmes. In contrast to the concern of the “media effects” tradition with “what media do to people,” the uses and gratifications can be seen as part of a broader trend amongst media researchers which is more concerned with “what people do with media,” allowing for a variety of responses and interpretations.
    Radio Educational Programmes: Radio educational programmes refer to all educationally-related programmes produced and broadcast by radio stations, which are targeted at senior secondary school students in Northeast Nigeria with the aim of supplementing the conventional educational system. Radio educational programmes come in different formats, such as quiz, debate, drama, documentary, lecture etcetera.
    Radio: Radio is a medium of communication that easily transcends literacy barriers and has the highest audience compared with television, newspapers and other means of mass communication. Radio seems to have proven itself as a developmental tool, particularly with the rise of community and local radios, which have facilitated a far more participatory and horizontal type of communication than was possible with the older, centralized broadcasting model of the 1960s and 1970s. Radio also seems also to be a powerful tool for information dissemination and access, especially for hard-to-reach rural audiences.
    Programme: Programme, in this context, refers to all broadcast contents in Northeast Nigeria directed at senior secondary school students. Programme is a series of daily sequential line-up of activities scheduled for broadcast by a radio station.

 Get Complete Materials

Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN SOLUTIONS ENTERPRESEhttps://abioliansolutions.com.ng
Learn ICT SKILL @ ABIOLIAN ONLINE ACADEMYhttps://onlineabiolian.com.ng
Abiolian VTU SHOPhttps://abiolianshop.com.ng
Our Market – Abiolian Online Storehttps://ourmarket.com.ng
LETHOSTNOW Classified ADShttps://easyads.com.ng
Abiolian Jobs Portalhttps://jobsportal.com.ng
HOST Your Website @ LETHOSTNOWhttps://lethostnow.com
Send Bulk SMS @ Abiolian Get Bulk SMShttps://getbulksms.com.ng
Get Final Year Project @ Project Gist Internationalhttp://projectgist.com.ng
Comments

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More

Privacy & Cookies Policy