ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PACKAGING AS A PROMOTIONAL TOOL IN THE MARKETING OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF WEAVONS (A STUDY OF AYMAN ENTERPRISES LIMITED AND LINDA MANUFACTURING COMPANY LIMITED)
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
The purpose of this research work is to analyze the role of packaging as a
promotional tool in the marketing of different brands of weavons. In nowadays
competitive marketing environment the role of package has changed due to
increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in package
as a promotional tool is growing increasingly. Package becomes an ultimate selling
proposition stimulating impulsive buying behaviour, increasing market share and
reducing promotional costs. However, the following objectives were formulated; to
analyze the extent packaging influences buying behaviours find out the impact of a
change in package on the sales of the product, to ascertain whether brand packaging
promote the company’s image, to know the extent producers consider packaging in
their product decisions, to determine if consumes associate the appearance of a
product to its quality. The study had a population of 1,693, out of which a sample
size of 324 was realized using Taro Yamane formula. Instrument used for data
collection was primarily questionnaire. 324 copies of questionnaire were distributed
and collected. The survey research method was adopted for the study while chisquare
was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that there is relationship
between packaging influence and buying behaviour and that there is impact of change
in the package of a product. Also there is relationship between brand packaging and
company’s image, and the producers consider packaging in their product decisions
and finally that consumers associate the appearance of a product to its quality. The
study recommended that manufacturing firms should periodically evaluate how
consumers respond to their product packaging so as to enhance the competitiveness
of their products in the market.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In nowadays competitive marketing environment the role of package has changed
due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in
package as a promotional tool is growing increasingly. Package becomes an ultimate
selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behaviour, increasing market share
and reducing promotional costs.
According to Rundh (2005:672) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular
brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about product.
Also package imparts unique value to products and works as a tool for differentiation,
i.e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products,
stimulates customers buying behavior. Wells, Farley & Armstrong, (2007:680)
opined that package performs an important role in marketing communications and
could be treated as one of the most important tools of promotion. The primary
function of packaging is to protect the product against potential damage while
transporting, storing, selling and exploiting a product and to ensure the convenience
during performance of these activities. Grundvag&Ostil, (2009:220) indicates the
importance of packaging in the case of grocery, when consumers buy unbranded
products. Seeing that most consumers tend to touch products before purchasing, they
treat product packaging as a tool for protecting consumers from contamination, for
allowing them to touch products without restraint, without need to avoid smudging
their hands. They propose to use packaging with a “window”, in order to allow
consumers to evaluate product by its appearance at the same time reducing
“consumer uncertainty regarding quality by branding the product and labeling it” i.e.
to communicate to consumer adequate message about product. It could be stating that
in length of time a function of identification and communication became of vital
importance especially for consumer products in the group of convenience goods.
Packaging as a tool for communication was investigated by Gonzalez et al.,
(2007:63) Taking into consideration that impulsive buying is proper to many
consumers it could be maintained that “packaging may be the only communication
between a product and the final consumer in the store”. Consequently the role of
package in marketing communications increases: it must attract consumer’s attention
and transmit adequate value of product to consumer in the short period right in the
place of sale.
The role of packaging has evolved from the traditional function of protecting the
product against dirt, damage, theft, mishandling, and deterioration. This functional
role is a requirement of all packages. In the modern era, packaging is also utilized as
a marketing tool to promote the product, to increase visibility of the product on the
shelf, and to provide information to the customer (O’Shaughnessy 2005:105). In spite
of packaging use as a growing marketing tool, marketers still view packaging as a
container. Known marketing guru, Philip Kotler (2000, 418) defines packaging as all
activities of designing and producing the container for a product. Packaging draws
the attention of the consumer at point-of-sale through its attractive design and color,
gives an indication of its contents, package can be a tool in educating the customer.
Finally, the package contributes to the overall image of the brand. It is important to
remember, however, that packaging is not the only marketing and promotional tool.
The increasing importance of packaging in the marketing mix has equaled and
occasionally surpassed product advertising and sales promotion in the past thirty
The physical packaging of a product can be used for many purposes, from the
manufacturing point to the end users, such as the protective and promotive functions
where it is called as a “silent protector” Long (2002:52) and a “silent salesman”
Pilditch (2003:102). The packaging not only delivers product information and brand
identity, it also visually appeals to consumers and due to its protective function
delivers the product undamaged. Besides, Packaging plays an important role in
helping consumers to recognize and understand the products.
When consumers go to retailers, they usually see the packaging of products before
they can see the products themselves. Therefore, the packaging of products can be an
effective tool for promotion in real shops Stewart, (2006:208).
According to Cateora (2002:405), a poorly packaged product conveys an impression
of poor quality. Supermarkets have many products on the shelves each containing
many items of information and there are very few sales people in a supermarket
hence most selling is done through packaging. The modern marketer should then see
packaging beyond its traditional role of holding contents together but as a
promotional tool for his products which is the purpose of this study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the increasing popularity of packaging in the promotion of goods and
services, one cannot but agree that there are areas of problems which need to be
studied. Though some business organizations are now using packaging to promote
their wares yet many business organization in Nigeria concentrate their marketing
effort on the traditional elements in the marketing mix in the performance of their
marketing activities. The rate at which wares or products are being advertised, one
may be forced to ask questions bothering on the use of packaging.
In the application of marketing mix, many organizations are faced with packaging
problems. Some of the packaging problems include; the need to know whether
packaging is a good promotional tool. In this regard, packaging alone is not enough
for promotion of goods and services. There is a great need to look at other marketing
mix elements which usually comes first before packaging, despite the fact that good
packaging promotes sales; wrong packaging can lead to the total rejection of goods.
Again, packaging affect consumer buying decision, because wrong\bad packaging
can make a consumer not to buy a particular product. In this aspect packaging needs
to be suitable for each product in order to attract the attention of the consumers and
also make them buy. Good packaging also protects the image of the organisation, but
some organisations do not have good packaging system, thereby making their
products to appear cheap and of low quality. Packaging is not a good compliment or
substitute for advertisement though good packaging helps in advertisement.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this research work is to analyze the role of packaging as a
promotional tool in the marketing of weavon.The specific objectives includes:
- To analyze the extent packaging influences buying behaviours.
- Find out the impact of a change in package on the sales of the product.
- To ascertain whether brand packaging promote the company’s image.
- To know the extent producers consider packaging in their product decisions.
- To determine if consumers associate the appearance of a product to its quality.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will guide this study:
- To what extent does packaging influence buying behaviour?
- What is the impact of a change of package on the sales of the product?
- To what extent does brand product packaging promote the image of the company?
- To what extent do producers consider packaging in their product decisions?
- Do consumers associate the appearance of a product to its quality?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In analyzing the role of packaging as a promotional tool in the marketing of weavons
some tentative statements have to be tested hence the following hypothesis is put
forward for this study:
- H0: There is no relationship between packaging influence and buying behaviour.
H1: There is relationship between packaging influence and buying behaviour.
- H0: There is no impact of change in the package of a product.
H1: There is impact of change in the package of a product.
- H0: There is no relationship between brand packaging and company’s image.
H1: There is relationship between brand packaging and company’s image.
- H0: The producers do not consider packaging in their product decisions.
H1: The producers consider packaging in their product decisions.
- H0: The consumers do not associate the appearance of a product to its quality.
H1: The consumers associate the appearance of a product to its quality.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will solve the research questions mentioned earlier and show the
importance of packaging as a promotional tool to both the manufacturers and
To the manufacturers, it will make them adopt a better approach to taking packaging
decisions; help them promote the image of the organisation and the brand.
To the consumers, it will show that package is part of the product they buy and may
help to reduce dissatisfaction felt after buying a product, stimulate their buying
behaviour and help them choose a product from a wide range of similar products.
Also, academic community will not be left out, because this work will serve as a
fertile ground for researchers who wish to carry out a study on this topic.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will cover the analysis of the role of packaging as a promotional tool in
marketing of weavons the researcher intends to use the manufacturers and consumers
of darling yaki and expression brands of weavon to carry out this research work.
These manufacturers and consumers will provide the researcher with useful
information that will be required to effectively carryout this research work.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The main limitations of the study are uncooperative attitude of some manufacturers
and consumers of the product of the companies taken into study, inadequacy of time,
financial constraints and inadequate power supply. Some of those approached for
information declined and refused to cooperate. This affected the volume of
information available for the study. Again, limited time allocated for this research
work did not provide room for accuracy and reliability of results.
1.9 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATIONS UNDER STUDY
Ayman Enterprises Limited
The company was established 20 years ago in Nigeria. They manufacture synthetic
hair (weavons, wigs, extensions, braids). They have a wide variety of styles, colours
and products. They are the major manufacturers of synthetic hair products in Nigeria.
They supply to the local market and export to many West African and European
countries. The company is owned by a Lebanese family. Their production capacity is
high and they pride themselves with the quality of their products. They can produce
any style, quality and colour if not in their range of products with synthetic hair.
Company name: Ayman Enterprises limited.
Business type: Manufacturer.
Product/service: Weavons, wigs, braids extensions.
Address: Matori, Mushin, Lagos.
Brands: Amigos, darling yaki.
Number of employees: about 75 employees.
Year established: 1987
Main markets: Africa, Western Europe.
Factory location: Nigeria.
Linda Manufacturing Company Limited
The company is an international synthetic hair manufacturing company with
headquarters in New York, USA, also registered in Nigeria and operating from
Lagos. The company has over 200 distributors’ nation wide and was founded in 1997
to manufacture contemporary hair products that are made from the best quality
synthetic fibers in the world.
Company name: Linda manufacturing company limited.
Business type: Manufacturer.
Product/service: Weavons, wigs, braids.
Address: Papa ajao, Mushin, Lagos.
Number of employees: About 83 employees.
Year established: 1997
Main market: Africa.
Factory location: Nigeria, New York, USA.
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