The Effect of Manpower Training and Development on Officers’ Morale in Nigeria Paramilitary (A Case Study of Nigerian Police Force in Ogun state)


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1.1       Background of the Study

The effect of training and manpower development on  employee’s  productivity  and  organization performance has  attracted  considerable  interest in  the  analytical  and  empirical  literature. On the whole,  human  resources  management  theory  has paid  considerable  attention  to  this  debate; however,  the  theoretical  predictions  are ambiguous.  Depending  on  their  underlying assumptions,  some  approaches  predict  that  the performance  of  an  organization  is  necessarily based  on  innovative  labour  force,  technology, quality  management,  and  customer  satisfaction;  while  others  see  training  as  a  tool  in  the hands  of  human  resources  managers  to  activate and  empower  the  productive  base  of  an organization. 

Employee training and manpower development is very  vital  to job  productivity  and  organization performance  since  the  formal  educational  system does  not  adequately  provide  specific  job  skills  for a position in a particular organization. While, few individuals  may  have  the  requisite  skills, knowledge,  abilities  and  competencies  needed  to fit  into a  specific  job  function,  some  others  may require extensive training to acquire the  necessary  skills  to  be  able  to  fit  in  a  specific  job function and also make significant contribution to the organization’s performance. 

            The  human  capital  theory  provides  evidence which indicates that training and education raises the  productivity  of  workers  by  imparting  useful knowledge  and  skills,  hence  raising  workers’ future  income  by  increasing  their  lifetime earnings.  Stone (2002) also provide an explanation that links investment in training with workers’ wages. In particular, their theory draws a crucial distinction  between  general  education  and  firm-specific  training,  and  recognized  training  and human  development as  a  basic  skill  provided  for higher productivity of  a worker. Training has the distinct role in the achievement of an organizational goal by incorporating the interests of organization and the workforce. 

Goldstein (2000) defined  training  as  the  systematic acquisition  and  development  of  the  knowledge, skills,  and  attitudes  required  by  employees  to adequately  perform  a  task  or  job  or  to  improve performance in the job environment. This implies that for any organization to succeed in achieving  the  objectives  of  its  training  program,  the  design and  implementation  must  be  planned  and systematic,  tailored  towards  enhancing performance  and  productivity.  Similarly, Cascio (2009) sees training  as  consisting  of  planned  programs designed  to  improve  performance  at  the individual, group and/or organizational levels.  Onasanya (2005) defines training as a form of specialized education aimed at giving the trainee a particular or specialized knowledge, skill and attitude which he  must  possess  to  effectively  perform  in  a  given position  while  development  is  concerned  with specific  programmes  designed  to  prepare  and groom  a  worker  with  particular  education  and training  for  higher  responsibilities.  Capacity building  according  to Sanusi (2002)  entails  investment  in human  capital,  institutions  and  practices necessary  to  enhance human  skills,  overhaul institutions  and  improve  procedures  and systems. Sanusi  further sees capacity  building as the internalization of the knowledge, skills and processes  that  enable  the  formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of set goals in an efficient manner; while Anyanwu (2002) views it as a  series  of  activities,  which  an  organization, enterprise or even a nation needs to undertake to provide  for  itself,  on  a  continuous  basis,  the supply  of  skilled  manpower  to  meet  its  present and  future  needs.  Manpower  development according to Anyanwu (2002) is the process of building up  human  resources  to  meet  the  needs  of  an organization.  He  stated  further  that  Manpower development  includes  investment  by  a  society  in education,  investment  by  employers  in  training employees  and  investments  by  individual  in  time and money in their own development.

Training has been an important variable in increasing organizational productivity.  Many researchers  [for  instance  Colombo E,  Stanca L; 2008]  showed  that training  is  a  fundamental  and  effectual instrument  in  successful  accomplishment  of  the firm’s  goals  and  objectives,  resulting  in  higher productivity.  Training  and  manpower development  builds  a  team  that  is  effective, efficient and  well motivating,  thereby  enhancing the confidence  and  self-esteem of  employees.  The employees’ knowledge and skills are  thus developed to adapt to new technologies and other organizational  changes. Training and manpower development also creates chances for the promotion of employees to replace those who have left the organization.  Indeed, the benefits of training and manpower  development  are innumerable.

Colombo (2008) also state that one of the potent factors militating against the good performance of employees is  inadequate  training.  An employee may have the ability and determination, with  the  appropriate  equipment  and  managerial support  yet  such  employee  may  be underproductive. The missing factor in most cases according to Adeniji (2002) is  the  lack  of  adequate skills, and knowledge, which are acquired through training  and  manpower  development.  Adeniji  further  stated  that  training  reduces  employee turnover  and  promotes  goal  congruency,  while lack  of  training  increases  absenteeism  rate,  low output,  poor  quality  and  results  in  high  unit  cost. However, this study aimed at assessing the effect of manpower training and development on officers’ morale in Nigeria paramilitary with special reference to Nigerian Police Force in Ogun state.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Despite the importance of training and manpower development  in  employee  productivity  and organizational  performance,  training  programs are  not sufficiently  supported  by organizations in Nigeria. These  organizations  consider  the  money they  will  spend  on  their  training  programs  as waste rather than investment. They fail to foresee the  desirability  of  continuous  training  and development  of  their  employees  in  order  to promote  the  efficiency  and  effectiveness  of  their organizations.  Those that  attempt  to conduct trainings  for  their  employees do so in  an  ad- hoc and  haphazard manner,  and  as  such, training  in those organizations is more or less unplanned and unsystematic.  This  view  is  corroborated  by Nwachukwu (2008) who argued that many employees have  failed  in  organizations  because  of  lack  of basic training.  Furthermore,  there is  a  general  consensus that  a relationship  exists  between  investment  in training  and  productivity.  While  some  studies have  provided evidence  of  positive  and  sizeable returns  on  human  capital  investments,  others have  documented  negative  evidence.  Again, despite the significance of training and manpower development,  the  outcomes of  studies  conducted in  this  area  generally  differ  considerably  from country to country and from period to period. For instance, while Harel (1999) found that training and development  practices  had  positive  relationship with  firms  ‘performance  in  public  and  private sectors in Isreal, while Itami (2007) in their study in Korea  did  not  find  any  association  between training  and  development  and  business performance.  Consequently,  the  inconsistency  in the  existing  empirical  evidence  makes  it imperative  to  provide further empirical  evidence on  the  effect  of  training  and  manpower development  on  employee  productivity  and organizational performance in Nigeria.

1.3       Purpose of Study

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of manpower training and development on officers’ morale in Nigeria paramilitary with special reference to Nigerian Police Force in Ogun state. Specifically, it sought to:

  1. To ascertain  the impact of training  and  manpower  development on  employee  productivity  in  Nigeria; 
  2. To examine the role of training and manpower development on organizational performance in Nigeria.
  3. To assess the role of training and manpower development on operational modalities of police in Nigeria

1.4       Significance of study

Since the central focus of this study is to assess the effect of manpower training and development on officers’ morale in Nigeria paramilitary with special reference to Nigerian Police Force in Ogun state.  It  is  expected  that  this study  will be  of  immense benefit  to the management  and  employees  of the Nigerian Police Force  and other  organizations as  well  as  the government,  policy  makers,  academicians, consultants, and  other  researchers  in  the  field  of human  resources  management  in  Nigeria.  For instance, this study will provide vital information to inspectors in the police force that would encourage  employee  motivation  and  job satisfaction. It will also be relevant to the human resource  development  department  in  the formulation  of  policies  relating  to  training  and development of personnel that will help to develop and  maintain  a  quality  work  life,  which  will enhance  employee  job  satisfaction  and  self-actualization. As part national planning strategy, this  study  will  assist  the government to  identify those  areas  where  it  can  be  of  assistance  to corporate bodies in Nigeria with respect to human capital  development.  Consultants  to  the Nigerian Police Force  on human  resources  management  will also  find  this study  useful  as  a good  reference material.  Above all, this study would assist in expanding the scope of existing literature on  employee productivity and organizational performance in Nigeria. 

1.5       Research Questions

Based on the foregoing, this research will attempt to proffer answers to the following pertinent questions: 

  1. What are the impacts of training and manpower development on employee productivity in Nigeria? 
  2. What are the roles of training and manpower development on organizational performance in Nigeria?
  3. What are the roles of training and manpower development on operational modalities of police in Nigeria?

1.6    Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guide the study:

HO1 –  There is no significant relationship between manpower training and employee productivity.

HO2 –  There is no significant relationship between manpower training and organizational performance.

Ho3 – There is no significant relationship between manpower training and improved operational modalities of Nigerian police.

1.7       Scope of the Study

This study is designed to assess the effect of manpower training and development on officers’ morale in Nigeria paramilitary with special reference to Nigerian Police Force in Ogun state, and the scope of the study does not extend beyond this.

1.8       Operationalization of variables

Independent Variables                                                                  Dependent Variables

(Manpower Training and Development)                         (Employee Productivity, Organizational Performance, Operational Modalities)

1. Manpower Training and Development         1. Improved employee productivity

2. Manpower Training and Development         2. Improved organizational performance  

3. Manpower Training and Development         3. Improved Operational Modalities

From the above, the independent variable on the research topic is manpower training and development while the dependent variable is employee productivity, organizational performance, and operational modalities. It could be seen from the table that manpower training and development results into improved employee productivity, improved performance of an organization, and improved operational modalities in an organisation, while manpower training and development results into improved organizational performance and effectiveness.

  1. Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally as follows:

Manpower: power in terms of the number of people available or needed to do something.

Training: acquiring of skill; the process of teaching or learning a skill or job.

Organization: a group of people identified by a shared interest or purpose.

Development: process of change;the process of changing and becoming larger, stronger, or more impressive, successful, or advanced.

Officer: somebody of rank in the armed forces;somebody in a military force authorized to command others.

Paramilitary: organized and staffed by civilians to provide support for the regular military services.

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