Automatic room light controller using IR sensor


Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)





The need for a device that can automatically control the lightening system of a room and capability of taking count of number of people in a room on its own has been long overdue. Fire outbreaks that occur in various homes originate when the occupant are either sleeping or not even at home at all. In big environments such as petrochemical industries, whenever there is fire outbreak, it turns out to be so fierce that people run away for the sake of their lives.


Wastage of electricity is one of the main problems which we are facing now a days. In our home, school, colleges or industry we see that fan and lighting point are kept on even if there are nobody in the room or area and passage. This happens due to negligence or because we forgot to turn lights off or we are in a hurry. To avoid all such situations this project called “Automatic room light controller with visitor counter” is designed. This project has two modules, first one is known as “Digital Visitor counter” and second module is known as “Automatic room light controller”. Main concept behind this project is known as “Visitor counter” which measures the number of persons entering in any room like seminar hall, conference room, hotel rooms. This function is implemented using a pair of Infrared sensors.The microcontroller does the above job. It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the control of software which is stored in the ROM.

 LCD display placed outside the room displays this value of person count. This person count will be incremented if somebody enters inside the room and at that time lights are turned on. And in reverse way, person count will be decremented if somebody leaves the room. When number of persons inside the room is zero, lights inside the room is turned off using a relay interface. In this way Relay does the operation of “Automatic room light controller”. Since this project uses 2 infrared sensors, it can be used as Bidirectional person counter as well.



1. Main advantage of this project is that it helps in energy conservation. Because when there is nobody inside the room then lights are turned off.

2. Human efforts to count the number of person is eliminated. Since this project does the automatic person counting with the help of two sensors installed on door frame.

3. In terms of Security it helps to check unauthorized entrances and exits. The display helps to alert and show the number of persons present.

Future Development:

1. Voice alarm system can be added to indicate that room is full & persons can’t enter inside.

2. We can increase the maximum number of persons that can be counted by implementing the external EEPROM IC.

3. We can send this data to a remote location using mobile or internet.


The following are the scope for the project made:

  • The display unit interface must always be monitored
  • The sensors must be active to count whenever an obstruction of the Infrared light is blocked
  • The user is familiar with numerical counting.
  • The receiver and the transmitting sections, i.e. the entrance and exit must be in synchronization for perfect counting.
  • The controlled appliances will have to have an electrical interface in order to be controlled by microcontroller
  • The audience reading this document will have a familiarity with engineering terms
  • All measurements for frequency, voltage and temperature will be in the standard scale


Listed below are client-specified limitations:

  • If someone goes out from the entrance it would count as one, also if someone goes comes in through the exit it would decrement one. So entrance and exit doors must strictly be abided.
  • It is used only when one single person, cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be used when two person crossing simultaneously
  • The only person who can communicate with the control module is the person who is in the receptionist and security units.
  • Only devices with electrical controlling input ports will be possible targets for control
  • The receiver must have a power source (220V) attached at all times


Chapter 1 serves as the introductory chapter where we try to relay the concept and acceptable reasons why the project should be implemented for the intending user of the work.

Chapter 2 deals with the literature review of all possible related or closely related work of the design. The evolutionary trend in automatic room light controller operations and design, specification will also be looked at. The use and importance of this project design will also be mentioned here. It will be looking at the best place where this project design can be use and where it cannot.  This chapter will also make room for adding additional information on past works in the area that will help in the actualization of this project design.

            Chapter 3 treats the methodology of this project design. It comprises of the information gathering, the source of the materials used in designing and writing the project report. The components and devices used in the course of designing this project will be analyzed to know their basic means of operation and how they will help in putting up this design, system design approach; the possible way to tackled the project design from scratch, bottom-up; it will treat how the practical detail was gotten before considering about the general principle of the system design, choice of design system; it focuses on why the project design was done using a microcontroller rather than using only digital logic.

          In chapter 4, it presents the detail design work and discusses the system, test carried out, Expected results, and Performance evaluation. The schematic diagram of the design and the source code (in Assembly language) used in programming the microcontroller were also outlined.

Summary and conclusion of the design will be presented in Chapter 5. It will be looking at the problems encountered in designing the project and possible solutions to them. From the problems and solutions of this work, the suggestion for further improvement will be stated.

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