DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE SWEET COMPONENTS OF COMMON ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS THAT ARE USED AS REPLACEMENT FOR SUGAR

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ABSTRACT

This research investigated how the sweetness of sugar substitute compares to the sweetness  of sugar .In this research different percentage solution of sugar, artificial sweetener and natural sweetener (10%,1%,0.1%and0.01%) were prepared. Ten volunteers were gathered for the sensory evaluation in this  case tasting of the solution, the volunteer‟s taste threshold of data wasgotten. The artificial sweetener was found out to be the sweetest among the substances experiment edandat the percentage of 0.1%and0.01%saccharin anartificial sweetener was able to mimic the taste of sugar. Researchprove that artificial sweetener are non-nutritive they have virtually nocaloriesin contrast to sugar which contains4 caloriesat each gram, a tea  spoon of sugar is about 4 grams,for weight lose artificial sweetener maybe an attractive option to sugar. Artificial sweetener may also be a good alternative for diabeticpatient,unlikesugar;artificialsweetenersgenerallydon‟traise

Blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste,usually with less food energy .Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are in general, called artificial sweeteners.Artificialsweetenersandothersugarsubstitutesarefoundina variety of food and beverages marketed as sugar free or diet including soft drinks,chewing gum,jellies,baked goods,candy,fruit juice and ice-cream and yoghurt.[Whitney 2011]

Peoplemaynotalllikethesamekindofbakedtreatsbutonethingweall agreeonisthatbakedtreatsshouldbesweetsusually,sugarisusedtolend sweetnesstofoodsbutwouldcaketastejustasgoodifthebakeruseda sugarsubstitutesinsteadofsugar?Many peopleprefernottousesugaroften duetohealthreasonsandinsteaddependonsugarsubstitutestosweeten their foods.Butaresugar substitutesthesame as sugar?Whatexactlyarethe differencesbetweensugar andsugarsubstitutes?

Sugaralsoknownassucrosecomesfromplantslikesugarcaneandsugar beetsandisacarbohydrate.Sugaraddsbulktocakes,cookiesandallkinds oftreats;sugaralsocausesbrowningandcaramelizinginfoodswhenitis

heatedaswhencookiesturngoldenbrownintheovensugarisanatural substance,somethingthatourbodiescan use for energy.

Sugarsubstitutescomeinthreecategories;artificialsweeteners,sugar alcoholsandnaturalsweeteners.Artificialsweetenersareattractivebecause theyaddalmostnocaloriestofoodsandaresometimesapartofweightloss programs.Alsotheydonotincreasebloodsugarlevelswhichmeanthat diabeticscanusethem.Manyartificialsweetenerslikesucralosewere discoveredbyaccidentinthelaboratory.In1976,ascientistinEnglandwas studyingdifferentcompoundsmadefromsugar.Thescientistaskeda studenttotestthecompoundsbutinsteadthestudenttestedthem.Another categoryofsugarsubstitutesissugaralcohols.Sugaralcoholsarenot alcoholicbeveragestheydonotcontainethanolwhichisfoundinalcoholic beverages.Sugaralcoholslikesugarhavecaloriesandenergybutnot asmuchassugar.Sugaralcoholslikeartificialsweetenersdonotcontribute totoothdecayandaffectbloodsugarlevels slowlysodiabeticscanuse them. Althoughsugar alcoholslike xylitol,sorbitolanderythritolaremanufactured productsthesourcesare oftennatural.

The last category of sugar substitutes is called natural substitutes. The categoriesincludemaplesyrup,agavenectarandhoney.Thesesubstances

areabsorbedbyourdigestivesystemandcontaincaloriesandnutrientsthat ourbodiescanuse.[Michelle2002]

Thechartlistssomepopularsugarsubstitutesandhowthey‟recommonly categorized:

Artificial sweeteners Acesulfame potassium (sunett,sweet one)Sugar alcohols       ErythritolNovel sweeteners     Stevia               extracts (pure via,truvia)Natural sweeteners     Agavenectar
Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet)Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate.Tegatose (Naturlose)Date sugar
NeotameIsomaltTrehaloseFruitjuice concentrate
Saccharin (sugartwin,sweet “N” lowLactitol Honey
Sucralose (splenda)Maltitol Maple syrup
 Mannitol Molasses
 Sorbitol  
 Xylitol  

1.1  AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

AIM:Tocreateanalternativetosugarbyreplicatingthesweetnessfoundin naturalsugar.

Objectives:

Todeterminehowthesweetnessofsugarsubstitutescomparetothe sweetnessofsugar.Inthisresearchsugarandsugarsubstituteswillbe testedand the sweetnesswillbe compare inrelationtosugar.

Tocomparetheavailabilityandaffordabilityoftheactivecomponents inthe artificialsweetener andsugar

Toknowthecomponentsofthisartificialsweetenerandwhatmakes themtaste sweet

1.2  SIGNIFICANCE OFSTUDY

Artificialsweetenermimickingthetasteofsugarwillbeabetteralternative topeoplewhoaresufferingfromdiabetics.Unlikesugar,artificial sweetenersgenerallydon‟traise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.

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