EFFECTS OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PHYSICO- CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SWEET POTATO AND SORGHUM

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ABSTRACTThis study evaluated” the effects of processing methods on the physico- chemical properties of sweet potato and sorghum flour”. Sweet potato (Ipomoeabatatas)isanimportantfoodcropinthetropicalandsub-tropical countriesandbelongstothefamilyconvolvulaceae.Sweetpotatoesarerich indietaryfiber,minerals,vitamins,andantioxidantssuchasphenolicacids, anthocyannins,tocopherolandβ-carotene.The proximate composition of sweet potato was determined and these include moisture,lipids,ash,protein, carbohydrates and fiber. In carrying out the analysis practically,methods used vary according to the food material. The antioxidants were also determined along side with phenoloxidase, pasting properties, minerals and sugar contents. Sorghumisa tropical plant belonging to the family of poaceae.Morethan35%ofsorghumisgrownforhumanconsumption.The analyses carried out in sweet potatoes are same withs orghum with the exclusion of phenoloxidase.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sweet potato (Ipomoeabatatas)is an important food crop in the tropical and subtropical countries and belongs to the family convolvulaceae. It is cultivated in more than 100countries.(Woolfe,1992).Nigeria is the third largest producer in the world with china leading, followed by Uganda. Sweet potato ranks seven the among the world food crops, third in value of production and fifth in caloric contribution to human diet(Bouwkamp, 1985).Sweet potato esarerichindietary fibre, minerals, vitamins and anti oxidantssuchasphenolicacids,anthocyanins,tocopherolandß-carotene. Besidesactingasantioxidants,carotenoidsandphenoliccompoundsalso providesweetpotatoeswiththeirdistinctivefleshcolours(cream,deep yellow,orangeandpurple).Sweetpotatoblendswithrice,cowpeaand plantaininnigeriandiets.Itisalsobecomingpopularasasubstitutetoyam andgarri.Itcanbereconstitutedintofofooorblendedwithother carbohydratefloursourcessuchaswheat(Triticumaestivum)andcassava (Manihotesculenta)forbakingbread,biscuitsandotherconfectioneries (Woolfe,1992).

Theleaves are richin proteinandtheorangeflesh varieties contain high beta caroteneandareveryimportantincombatingvitaminAdeficiency especiallyinchildren.

Sorghum(sorghumbicolor(S.bicolor)isatropicalplantbelongingto thefamilyofpoaceae,isone ofthemost importantcropsinAfrica,Asiaand LatinAmerica.Morethan35%ofsorghumisgrowndirectlyforhuman consumption.Therestisusedprimarilyforanimalfeed,alcoholproduction andindustrialproducts(FAO,1995).Thecurrentannualproductionof60 milliontonsisincreasingduetotheintroductionofimprovedvarietiesand breedingconditions.Severalimprovedsorghumvarietiesadaptedtosemi- aridtropicenvironmentsarereleasedeveryyearbysorghumbreeders. Selectionofvarietiesmeetingspecificlocalfoodandindustrialrequirements fromthisgreatbiodiversity isofhighimportanceforfoodsecurity.In developingcountriesingeneralandparticularlyinWestAfricademandfor sorghumisincreasing.Thisisduetonotonlythegrowingpopulationbut alsotothecountriespolicytoenhanceitsprocessingandindustrial utilization.

Morethan7000sorghumvarietieshavebeenidentified,thereforethereisa needoftheirfurthercharacterizationtothemolecularlevelwithrespectto foodquality.Theacquisitionofgoodqualitygrainisfundamentalto produceacceptablefoodproductsfromsorghum.Sorghumwhileplayinga crucialroleinfoodsecurityinAfrica,itisalsoasourceofincomeof household.InWestAfrica,ungerminated sorghumgrainsare generallyused forthepreparationof”to”,porridgeandcouscous.Maltedsorghumisused intheprocessoflocalbeer”dolo”(reddish,cloudyoropaque),infant porridgeandnonfermentedbeverages.Sorghumgrainslikeallcerealsare comprisedprimarilyof starch.

The aim and objective of this work is to obtain diet low in sugars,with enriched nutrients intended for diabetics.

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