ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS ON PTEROCARPUS MILDBREADII (OHA) SEED

15

Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

ABSTRACT

Elemental analysis is the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of chemical elements(atoms, ions)in a sample(Fritz Pregl 1923). To detect an

Element, one should fix an appearance of an analytical signal. The formation of precipitate or characteristic crystals ,colour change, an isolation of gaseous products, an appearance of a definite lines in spectrum, luminescence, etc. To determine elements quantity, it is necessary to measure a value of an analytical signal; a precipitate mass, intensity of a current, solution absorption, spectrum line, luminescence or radio activity, a reaction rate and soon.(www.intechopen.com).

This study was undertaken to analsetheelementspresentingroundedPterocarpus mildbreadii(Ohaseed)usingAtomicAbsorptionSpectrometer(AASMODEL- AA320N).Theseedwasfoundtocontaintheseessentialmacrominerals/elements sodium(Na),Potassium(K),calcium(Ca),magnesium(Mg),andthetraceelements iron(Fe),copper(Cu),zinc(Zn),andselenium(Se)(Duffus,2002).

The study established that Pterocarpusmildbreadii(ohaseed)does not contain manganese and has high content of potassium which is necessary for good health.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Aseedormatureovuleisaminiatureplantwithaprotectivecoverina suspendedstateofdevelopment.Mostseedscontainabuilt-infoodsupplycalled endosperm,orchidisanexception.Theendospermcanbemadeupofproteins, carbohydratesandfats.

Seedcanalsobedefinedasasmallembryonicplantenclosedinacoveringcalled theseedcoat,usuallywithsomestoredfood.Itistheproductoftheripenedovule ofgymnospermandangiospermplantswhichoccursafterfertilizationandsome growthwithinthemotherplant(Wikipedia).Seedprotectsaplantembryosothatit cangrowintoanewplant.Manyseedsareedible,suchassunflowerseeds,tomato seeds,cornandpeas.

Seedscontainthreedistinctstructures.Theinsideofaseedcontainsanembryo, whichisababyplantwithashootandatinyroot.Thetwohalvesofaseedare storedfoodthatprovidesthenourishmentnecessaryforseedstogerminate,or begingrowing.Surroundingtheseedisahard,toughseedcoat,whichprotectsthe seedduringdormancy(Anville 2007).

Mostseedscontainabuilt-infoodsupplycalledendosperm.Theendospermcan bemadeupofproteins,carbohydratesandfats.Seedsalsocontainanti-nutrientsin

theirseedcoat.Theseanti-nutrientsincludesphytin,lectin,trypsininhibitor activity,tanninandcyanide.Inaddition,theyalsocontainmineralssuchas sodium,potassium,calcium,magnesium,phosphorus,zinc,manganese,iron,selenium andcopper.(Balogun2000)

Oilseedsareenergydensefoods;forexample,sesameseedsprovide600kcalor 2470kj/1000g.Althoughoilseedscontainprotein(|14-32g/100g)and carbohydrate(rangingfromlessthan1g/100gtomorethan34g/100g),mostofthe foodenergytheyprovideisasfat(whichprovides9kcalor37kj/g).Oilseedsvary widelyintheirfattyacidcompositionbuttendtoberichinMUFA(e.gpeanut)r PUFA(e.gsunflowerseeds).SomeseedoilscontainsignificantamountsofEFA, ALNA,ann-3fattyacid,andlinoleicacid(LA),ann-6fattyacid.fromthesetwo fattyacids,thebodycanmakeallthefattyacidsitneeds.FromLA,arachidonic acidcanbeproduced,andfromALNAthelongchainn-3eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA)anddocosahexanoic acid(DHA)canbe made.(BNF 1999).

Generally,wholeoilseedsareasourceoffibre,phosphorus,ironandmagnesium; manyoilseedsareasourceofvitaminE(anantioxidant),niacinandfolate.Whole oilseedsalsocontainphytoestrogens,agroupofsubstancesincludinglignansand isoflavones.Phytoestrogenshaveastructuresimilartotheoestrogenhormone oestradiolandcanbindtooestrogenreceptors.Phytoestrogensmayprovidea protectiveeffectagainstcoronaryheartdiseaseastheyhavebeenshowntohavea

loweringeffectonbloodcholesterol.Additionally,somephytoestrogensmayhave antioxidantproperties(Goldberg 2003).

InBritain,oilseedsareusuallyconsumed,followingprocessing,asoilsand margarines.Thefattyacidcompositionofoilsproducedfromoilseedsvaries widely.Vegetableoilsdonotcontainthesamelevelsofmacronutrients,vitamins andmineralsaswholeoilseeds.Infact,apartfromfatitself,vitaminEistheonly nutrientpresentinappreciableamounts.Vegetableoilsdo,however,containa rangeofphytochemicals,e.gtheyarethemainsourceofnaturalplantsterolsin thediet.Plantsterolshaveastructuresimilartocholesterolandhencereduce cholesterolabsorption,thereforereducingthecirculatinglevelsoftotalandlow densitylipoprotein(LDL)cholesterol.Plantsterolscanbepresentasfreeor esterifiedformsandtheproportionsvary,e.gfreesterolsdominatein soybean,oliveandsunfloweroil,while inrapeseedandcornoil,freesterolsaccount foronly30%oftheplantsterols.Refiningvegetableoilsdecreasesthecontentof sterols(from10-70%dependingontheoilandprocessingconditionsused),thus decreasingtheirpotentialtolower serumcholesterol(Goldberg2003).

1.1 AIM OF STUDY

To determine the elements present in grinded oha seed(Pterocarpus mildbreadii)

1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE;

This study was primarily designed to use grinded oha seed(Pterocarpus mildbreadii) extract for elemental analysis.

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