PHYTOCHEMIC ALANALYSIS AND THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVAADANSONII

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ABSTRACT

Inflammationisacomplexbiologicalresponseofvasculartissuetoharmfulstimulisuchaspathogen,damagecellsorirritants.Theurgencygeneratedbyinincreasedrateofstroke,atheroselerosisattributedtoprolonguseofcyclooxygenase-1and2inhibitorshaveacceralatedanti-inflammatorydrugresearchoverthelastdecadewhilesyntheticpharmaceuticalagentscontinuedtodominateresearch,attentionincreasinglyhasbeendirectedtonaturalproducts.Theseareoftenmoreaffordableandavailableandsometimesareperceivedasmoreeffectivethanconventionalanti- inflammatorydrugs.

Anti-inflammationwascarriedoutusing11rats.Thatwasdividedintothreegroupsoffourratseach.Group1and2servedasthepositiveandnegativecontrol respectively.Groups3and4received200mg/kgb.w and600mg/kgb.w.oftheextractsrespectively.However,itwasdiscoveredthatthestembarkofcratevaAdansoniishowedgreatersignificanceanti- inflammatoryactivitywhencomparedwiththestandard.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Anti inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti–inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, reducing pain by inhibiting inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system published by Artemi sMorris, molly Rossiter. Inflammation(Latin, inflammo,“Iignite, setalight”)is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The classical signs of inflammation are pain ,heat, redness, swelling and loss of function by Dr Weil. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and initiate the healing process.

Inflammationisnotasynonymforinfection,evenincaseswhere inflammationiscausedbyinfection.Althoughinfectionis caused byamicroorganism, and organismpathogen.

Inflammationisasetereotypedresponseandisconsideredasa mechanismof innateimmunityby Dr.Weil.

1.1 TYPES OF INFLAMMATION

Inflammationcanbeclassifiedaseitheracuteorchronic.Acute inflammation,istheinitialresponseofthebodytoharmful stimuliandisachievedbytheincreasedmovementofplasmaand leukocytes(especiallygranulocytes)fromthebloodintothe injured tissues.

Prolongedinflammation,knownaschronicinflammation,leads toaprogressiveshiftinthetypeofcellspresentatthesiteof inflammationandischaracterizedbysimultaneousdestruction andhealingofthetissuesfromtheinflammatoryprocessfrom Wikipedia,thefree encyclopedia.

1.2.    AIMSAND OBJECTIVES.

Evaluationoftheanti–inflammatoryactivityofcrateva adansonii(plant).Thepurposeofthisstudywastoevaluateand comparetheanti-inflammatoryactivityoftheaqueousstenbark extractofcratevaadansoniiinexperimentalacuteandchronic inflammatoryanimalmodels.Andtoevaluatethephytochemical constituentsandpharmacologicalevaluationoftheeffectof crateva adansonii on albino rats.

1.3 RATIONAL STUDY.

Cratevaadansoniiwasdescribedin1824byAugstinPyramusde candolle.

Cratevaadansoniiisaspecieofafloweringtreeinthe capparanceafamily,whichisequallycalledthe“sacredgarlic pearandtempleplant,”andmanyothernamesinavarietyof dialects,includingBalailamoke,barnajVaninaandbidasi.The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy

flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan,

IslandsIndia it is grownelse where for fruit,especially inpartsof the African continents.

Thefruitofthetreeisedible.Theflowersareattractivetoa multitudeofinsectsandbirds.Thebutterfly(Hebomoia glaucippe) isafrequent visitor to this plant byDr.Weil.

1.4 TAXONOMY

CratevaAdansoniiisaspeciesinthegenuscrateva,which contains 8 speciesand belongsto the family ofCapparacea(caper family)

following;

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Division:                      Angosperms

Class:                           Eudicots

sub-class:                     Rosids

Order:                          Brassicales

Family:                          Capparaceae

Genus:                          Crateva

Species:                        C.religiosa

  1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONOFCRATEVAADANSONII

Unarmed,smalldeciduoustree,6-15mtall,glabrousleaves3– foliolate,petiolate,leafletshortypetiolulate,elliptic,elliptic– lanceolate,moreorlesolique,acuminate/narrowedtowardsthe

subcoriaceous,oftenturningbrownishwhendry,petiole(2.5)4- 8cmlongflowers.3-6cmacross,subirregulargreenishwhite turningyellowishafteropeningappearingbeforeorjustafterthe flushofnewleaves,pedicle2-4cmlong,10-17mmwide,2 adoxialonesgenerallywhatlargerstamensusually20-25, gynophoregenerally3-5cmlong,slenderthickenedinfruit.Fruit globose,3-5cminthedevelopmentoffruit.Yellowishseeds reinformatabout3-4mmindiamsmoothbrown.Theflowersare green and arearrangedinracemes. The fruitsareberries.

1.6 DISTRIBUTION

Crateva adansoniiis nativeto tropical Africa,India,Srilanka, Myanmar,Japan,Australia and much ofSouth East Asia.

1.7 CULTIVATION

CratevaAdansoniicanwithstandtemperaturesonlyabove1- 20C.TheplantsbloomfromMarch to May.

  1. USES OFCRATEVA ADANSONII

CratevaadansoniiisusedintraditionalmedicineintheWest Africa.ThecrudeHexane(CAN-1)andethylacetateactivityhas Africantrypanosome,Trypansomiabruceibrikesandforms bloodstream.Thecrudeextractsshowedmoderateanti- trypansomalactivity.It’susealoneorincombinationwithother natural/ semi–syntheticdrugs for thetreatment of human Africa.

Cratevaadansoniifruitservesasanediblefruitwhichcontains berriesPublishedbyFloraofTaiwan,NationalTaiwan University.

1.9 SOURCES

Fromwikipedia,

Thefree encyclopedia bing

pdf

and articles of Health.

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