PHYTOCHEMICAL ANDANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OFMETHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONIISTEMBARK.

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ABSTRACT

This research investigated the phytochemical andanti-inflammatory properties of methanol extract o fCrateva adansoniistembark. Although severaledibleandnon-edibleplantspartsareusedininflammatory treatment,manyrecordhasbeenfoundoftheuseofCratevaadansoniistembark.Forthisresearch,freshstembarkofCratevaadansoniiwere collectedfromAsatavillageinEnuguState.Thecuttingswereauthenticated attheBioresourcedevelopmentcentre.Theywerethendriedatroom temperatureforonemonthinanopenlabspace,groundedintopowderand weighedonabeambalanceas460.6g.Thepowderwassoakedfortwenty- fourtofourty-eighthoursinmethanoltogetamethanolextractandthen

concentratedintopasteatasettemperaturerangeof  30-550Cinawater

bath.ApopulationoftwentyadultwistarAlbinoratswasusedforanti- inflammatorytest.Theratsweredividedintofive(5)groupsoffour(4) albinoratseach.Theywereadministered3%tween-80mixedwith dichloromethaneextractofCratevaadansoniiandthecontrolwas administeredwith0.5mlof3%tween-80.Acuteinflammationwasinduced anhouraftertestsubstanceswereadministeredbyinjectingeggalbuminin thesubplanterregionoftherighthindpawandedemaassessedbymercury displacementforaperiodof0-180minutes.Anti-inflammatoryeffectwas significantwithin30minutesofinducededemawithinhibitionoccurringin threephasesof0-30,30-60,60-90.90-120to180minutes.Inhibitionwas highestatthethirdphase.Cratevaadansoniibarksshowedanti- inflammatory effectby inhibiting“prostaglandin”synthesisaninflammatory mediator

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Inflationisa Latin word(inflammare)which is translated means to seton fire.It is a complex biological response of vasculartissuetoharmfulstimuli such as pathogens,damaged cells irritant.Inflammation is there action of vascularizedtissuetolocalinjurycausedbycertainstimulilikeinfections, chemicalsandbiochemicalagents,thermalorotherphysicaltrauma, antigen-antibodyinteractionetc(Carol,1994). Withoutinflammatory response,wounds will no thealandminorinfectionswouldbeoverweening. Thoughinflammationaimsatlimitingdamageandrestoringfunction,some enzymesandtoxicproductswithinphagocyticcellsarereleasedto theextendofdamagingthetissue.Theadventofanti-inflammatoryagentshas madeinflammationwhichasbeenathreattohumanlifeduetoitscomplex, multicontent,tolooseitspower.Theseanti-inflammatoryagentsordrugs helpreduce,painbyinhibitinginflammationasopposedtoopioids,which affectsthecentralnervoussystem.Italsopreventrepairs,preventandstop theconsequencesofinflammationbyactingonthebodyresponseswithout directlyantagonizingthecausativeagent(Stedman,2000).Theseanti- inflammatoryprocessinvolvestheprocessofbalancingpro-inflammatory

acute-phasereactants(Russelletal.2000),alteringbiochemicalpathway

formingprostaglandinsbyinhibitingcyclooxygenaseenzymefrom catalyzingthereaction,asaresult,suppress,compensateandcorrectthe mechanicalandstructuralabnormalitiesbyassistivedevice.(Masumotoetal.2009).

Theinflammatoryreactionisphylogeneticallyandontogeneticallytheoldest defensemechanism. Thecellsofimmunesystemarewidelydistributed throughoutthebody,butifaninfectionortissuedamageoccurs.Itis necessarytoconcentrate themandtheir productsatthesiteof damage.

Three major eventsoccurringduringthisresponse:

  1. Anincreasedbloodsupplytothedamagedtissue.Itisperformedby vasodilation.Theinflamedtissuelooklikecontaininggreaternumber of vessels.
  • Increasedcapillarypermeabilitycausedbyretractionofthe endothelialcells.Thispermitslargermoleculesthanusualtoescape fromthecapillaries,andthusallowsthesolublemediatorsof immunitytoreachthe siteof inflammation.
  • Leukocytesmigratesoutofthe capillariesintothe surroundingtissues.

In theearliest stages of inflammation,  neutrophils are particularly

prevalent,butlatermonocytesandlymphocytesmigratetowardsthe site of infection(Ashcroft etal.1999).

Forthepossibilityofsurroundingtissuedamage,inflammatoryresponses mustbewellorderedandcontrolled.Thebody mustbeable toactquicklyin somesituations,forexampletoreduceorstopthelostofblood,whereas tissuerepaircanbeginlater.Thereforeawidevarietyofinterconnected cellularandhumoral(soluble)mechanismsareactivatedwhentissue damageandinfectionsoccur.Ontheotherhand,ifinjuryisnegligible,the bodymusthavemechanismswhichareabletostoptissuedamagewhenthe agentisremoved.Thedevelopmentofinflammatoryreactionsiscontrolled bycytokines,productsofplasmaenzymes(complement,thecoagulation clotting,kininandfibrolyticpathways),bylipidmediators(prostaglandin andleukotrienes)releasedfromdifferentcells/andbyvasoactivemediators fromthemastcells,basophilsandplatelets.Theseanti-inflammatory reactionsdiffer.Fast-actingmediatorssuchasvasoactiveaminesandthe productofthekininsystem,modulatetheimmediateresponse.Later,newly synthesizedmediatorssuchasleukotrienesareinvolvedintheaccumulation andactivationofothercells.However,ininflammatoryreactionsinitiated by theimmunesystem,theultimatecontrolisexertedby theantigenitselfin thesamewaysitcontrolstheimmuneresponseitself.Forthisreason,the

cellularaccumulationatthesiteofchronicinfectionorauto-immune reactionswhereantigencannotultimatelybeeradicated,isquietdifferent fromthe siteswere antigenicstimuluscanbe rapidlycleared.

Thenervoussystemcanalsoparticipateinthecontrolofinflammation especiallyaxonreflexes,butinflammationmayberealizedinnon-nervous tissuesas well.

Inflammationmaybecomechronicincertainsettingswheretheacute processcharacterizedbyneutrophilinfiltrationandswellinggiveswayto predominanceofmononuclearphagocytesandlymphocytes.Thisprobably occurstosomedegreewiththenormalhealingprocessbutbecomes exaggeratedandchronicwhenthere’sineffectiveeliminationofforeign materialsasincertaininfections(e.gtuberculosis)orfollowingintroduction offoreign bodies (example asbestos) or depositionofcrystals (example urate crystals).Chronicinflammationisoftenassociatedwithfussionof mononuclearcellstoformmultinucleatedgiganticcells,whicheventually becomegranuloma. Chronicinflammationisseenunderofdelayed hypersensitivity(Nathan,2002).

1.2  CRATEVAADANSONIIAS A PLANT.

Thefloweringtreecratevareligiosa(syncratevaadansonii)iscalledthe sacredgarlicpearandtempleplant,andmanyothernamesinavarietyof dialets,includingBalai,lamok,abiyuch,barna,varunaandbidasi.Thetree issometimescalledthespidertreebecausetheshowyflowerbearlong, spiderystamens.ItisnativetoJapan,Australia,muchofSouthEastAsia andseveralSoutheastAsiaandseveralSouthpacificislands.Itisgrown elsewhere for fruitespeciallyinpartof Africancontinent.

The cratevaadansoniiplant is a moderate sized, spreading unarmed,

deciduoustreegrowingtoaheightof15meters.Barkisgrey,thewood yellowish-whiteturninglightbrownwhenold.Leavesareclusteredatthe endofthebranchletswithacommonpetiole5-10centimeterlong,atthe summitofwhicharethreeleaflets.Leafletsareovate-lanceolateorovate 7.5-12centimeterlong,4-6centimeterwide.Pointedatthebaserather slenderpointeratthetip.Floweroccurinterminalcorymbs,about5 centimetersindiameter,greenishyellow,andatlengthpurplish.

Petalsareovateoroblongwiththeclawhaftaslongasthelimb.Fruitis ovoidorrounded,3-5centimeterindiameters,withahardandroughrind.

Seeds areabout 10 centimeter in length, numerous kidney-shaped, and embeddedinayellowpulp.

1.3  DISTRIBUTION

  1. Inwaste places,alongstreamsand inthicketsnearthesea.
  • OccursinIndia,Myanmar,Srilanka, Malasia,Indonesia and China.(nature serve.2011).
  • Sometimesplantedasornamentalstree foritsbeautifulflower.

1.4   SCIENTIFICCLASSIFICATION

Kingdom:                    Plantae

Division:                     Angiosperrrrms

Class:                          Eudicots

Sub-class:                   Rosids

Order:                          Brassicales

Family:                        Capparaceae

Genues:                       Crateva

Species:                      C.reliigiosa

Binomialname CratevareligiosaFrost.F.

Theconstituentsoftheplanthavebeenassessedovertimeandithasbeen foundinvariouspartsof the plantstocontain:

Barkyieldtannin.

Phytochiemicalsscreeningofextractofdriedleavesyieldedallcaloids, carbohydrates,tannin,flavonoids,resins,proteins,oils,steroidsand terpenoids.

1.5   PROPERTIES

Generallyconsidereddiuretic,anti-inflammatory,laxative,anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective,antilithics,antirheumatic,antiperiodic,contraceptive, anthelmintic.

Barkhasadisagreeablesmell,thetasteslightlybitter,bittingandpungent. Leavesconsideredstomachic andtonic.

Rootsandbarkconsideredlaxative,lithotripticandalternative,promoting appetite andincreasingbiliarysections.

Leavesarerubifacient,tonic andfebrifugal.

1.6  RESEARCH AIMANDOBJECTIVES

Thisresearchaimatinvestigatingtheanti-inflammatorypropertiesof methanolextractofcratevaadasoniistembark.Andasobjectives,to comparethetherapeuticpotential,(i.e.anti-inflammatoryeffect )ofthe methanolextractofcratevaadansoniibarkagainsttheexperimental standardindomethacin.

1.7  BACKGROUNDOFSTUDY

Theplantcratevaadansoniialsoknownasoralsocalledsacredgarlicpear andtempleplant.Apartfromitsmedicinalpropertieswhich allowsthe plantstobeusedaslaxative,itisalsoanedibleplantespeciallythefruits,

berryandyoungshoot.Theplantisusedinherbaltreatmentoftympanites, convulsion,treatment of fever,rheumatism,urinarycalculietc.

Cratevaadansoniiiscapableofsuppressingthefreeradicals,production,it isbeensuggestedtohaveanti-inflammatorypropertieswhichcounterthe synthesisofinflammatorymediatorsthusformingthebackgroundofthis research.

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