An Assessment Of The Crisis Of Moral Values And The Dilemma Of The Development Of Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Nationally and internationally, there is increasing demand from schools in respect of their mandate on the formulation of acceptable values for the young ones to imbibe and live with. This is stem from the rapid decay of the overall values system among nations of the world. The survival of values education becomes imperative because of nostalgia of the past, disappointment of the present and hope for the future generations. Nigeria is bedeviled with the challenges of not only economic transformation but that of reconstructing and rebuilding the society’s values system. The strengthening of the values system provides an enabling platform for a breakthrough the nation’s vision 20:20:20. Questions to ask according to National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (2004) about Nigeria vision are: what kind of Nigeria do we want for ourselves, for our children, and for the rest of the world? Answers to the above are articulated in the vision 2001 Kuru declaration of NEEDS (2004) which states: To build a truly great African democratic country, politically united, integrated and stable, economically, prosperous, socially organized with equal opportunity for all and responsibility from all, to become the catalyst of (Africa) Renaissance and making adequate all-embracing contributions, sub-regionally, regionally and globally (P:2) The above pursuit is meant to advance development in Nigeria from all fronts of national endeavours even though Nigeria is a country of paradoxes according to Soludo (2006). This is based on the fact that it is a country abundantly blessed with natural and human resources but in the last four decades of its independence, its potentials have remained largely untapped and the little that has been trapped mismanaged. The poor condition in Nigeria and the inability of the leaders to provide conditions necessary for national development since independence demand serious concern by those who care about “the Nigeria project”. To Dike (2005), the quest for national development in said to bring with it valuable and positive changes that improve the living standards of the people, creates employment opportunities, and reduces poverty, among other things. Emphasizing further on the need to advance development, Dike (2005) pointed out that economic development increases the efficiency of a system in the production of goods and services to meet the basic needs of the people in the society. The attainment of this challenge of self-sufficiency is greatly determined by the character and attitude of the leaders who are entrusted with the management of the society. The failure on the part of the leaders fifty years after independence to lay sustain foundation for economic growth and development justifies the necessity for a national rebirth programme directed at ensuring ethical reorientation for the leaders and for the followers who compliment the efforts of the leaders. This is further strengthened by the Federal Government national re-branding effort aimed at building hope and confidence among Nigerians and International community. The big questions to ask are where lies the problems of Nigeria in terms of achieving the much desired national development? What can be done to address the possible constraints to national development? Are the challenges of national development in Nigeria attitudinal in character or physical in shape? The project is interested in establishing how values can be re-engineered to create lasting and sustained environment that will stimulate national development in Nigeria.

Education is a key component of personal development (Fafunwa, 1990; Odia LO, 2007 and Anasi, 2012). It is the process of becomingthe best people can be in life (Ake, 1988). Not surprisingly, there is a high correlation betweenindividual progress and education in modern societies (Akinyemi T, 2012). Hence, educated persons aremore successful in life than illiterates. This is because the skills learnt in institutions of learning make them relevant in work organizations and businesses than illiterates. However, the more people succeed in work settings and personal businesses the more society itself advances. Thus, no society can progress without an adequate input of her manpower assets. It is high level human capital assets that drive the nations’ economies and ensure rapid transformation (Odia LO, 2008). The stock of highly-educated individuals produced by tertiary institutions therefore, plays an important role in the innovation and sustainable development of any society (Odia LO, 2008). In other words, education provides mankind with knowledge and information which could bring about desirable changes in the way they think, feel and act.

Nevertheless, the attainment of these virtues depends on the contents of education, teaching methods and willingness of people to learn, coupled with positive character.

However, this paper lays much emphasis on positive character because it serves as the yardstick for the success of other factors in ensuring societal advancement (Akinnaso, 2014).

According to Ademijimi, 2014 views character in terms of the following six co-existent features: trustworthiness, respect,responsibility, fairness, caring and citizenship. Good character is said to be in existence byAdemijimi, 2014, in societies or institutions, where the above features are constantly and positively exhibited while bad character manifest in milieus where the reverse is the case. From the military incursion into politics, Ademijimi argues, Nigerian education system has been infused with negative characters, as clearly demonstrated in the plight of tertiary institutions today. It is not unreasonable to note that good character that was in existence in higher institutions,prior to military incursion into politics, turned into bad character due to poor funding ofeducation, poor remunerations and conditions of service for members of staff. In an attemptto survival, many manpower assets in academia migrated to greener pasture en mass (Omonijo DO,, 2011) while the majority of faculty and staff left behind began to engage in dubious means thatundermine academic excellence. Gradually, students, parents, proprietors, securitypersonnel etc joined forces with them and formed an unbeatable combination that makes allefforts in sanitising academia fruitless, leading to the current moribund education sector.

Quality education in Nigeria has therefore been a bone of contention in the last four decades. As a result, a good number of literature on the sector being adequately challenged are found yet little is known in the literature about the prevailing moral dilemma, which hasgradually become a common feature of the nation’s education system. Although the work of[35] on “Beliefs and Character: Theology and Ethics of Road Safety in Nigeria” highlightssalient issues bordering on moral dilemma but the study only addresses “Ethics of RoadSafety” and ignores other moral decadence prevailing not only in the education sector but inmany spheres of life in Nigeria. It is on this note that this article is conceived. The studyamong other things x-rays factors responsible for the endemic moral malpractice in theeducation sector, uncovers and expresses lucidly the prevailing manifestations of moralmalpractice in daily life.

It could be argued that education can only be useful and meaningful when it empowerspeople to face life-challenging situations, resulting in positive changes in their lives. In recent times, it is often very difficult to differentiate between educated Nigerians and illiterates.

Thus, many holders of degrees are not worthy in learning and in character as claimed by theinstitutions that awarded their degrees (Okoro, 2011). In other words, the process of securingeducation in Nigeria is faulty. Consequently, the education system is of little or no effect inhandling day-to-day challenges of life, bringing to bear the view of Odion-Akhaine S, 2012 on Nigeria being richbut poor; has oil but imports the same at higher price to the detriment of poor masses (Oludayo, 2014); blessed with vast arable lands but imports her most basic foodstuff and her huge oil resources are being misappropriated, wasted and looted by the elite class (Omonijo DO, 2009; Sri Najib D, 2013; Erder, 1996 and UNESCO, 2008).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Several studies have emerged on education being adequately challenged in Nigeria, yetlittle is known in the literature on the social analysis of moral decadence that has become a common feature of the nation’s education system and spread to other institutions like an harmattan fire. There is crisis of moral values and dilemma of the development in Nigeria education sector, in this present study therefore, the researcher focused on the problem moral values and dilemmaand hopes to suggest measures on how education sector can be adequately development Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine assessment of the crisis of moral values and the dilemma of the development of Nigeria. The specific objective of this study are to:

1. Examine the crisis of moral value and dilemma in the education sector thathinder Nigeria development.

2. Examine the factors responsible for moral dilemma in education in Nigeria.

3. Analysis of moral decadence in Nigeria and theoretical insights.

1.4 Research Question

The research questions for this study is stated below:

1. What is the moral value and dilemma in education sector?

2. What is the factors responsible for moral dilemma in education in Nigeria?

3. What is moral decadence in Nigeria and theoretical insights?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The researcher hopes that the finding and suggestions of this study would enable for effective management of moral value in education sector towards achieving development of Nigeria.

The study will enable government of higher institution to identity how to managethe education sectorin other to boost their moral values input in the institution.

It will also be of benefit for policy makers in various forms of education sectore. It will be of immense guide to future researchers who intends to exploit and understand further concepts of crisis of moral values and the dilemma of the development of Nigeria.    

1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is centered on examining the assessment of the crisis of moral values and the dilemma of the development of Nigeria. This study will be on the education sector crisis moral values.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:

1. The limitation of the research title as just assessment of the crisis of moral values and the dilemma of the development of Nigeria.

2. Financial Limitation.

3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving.

1.8 Definition of terms

Crisis:is any event that is going to lead to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society.

Moral Value: such as integrity, determination, loyalty, truthfulness, honesty, giving respect to each other etc should be inherited by every individual. 

Dilemma: is a problem offering two possibilities, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable. The possibilities are termed the horns of the dilemma, a clichéd usage, but distinguishing the dilemma from other kinds of predicament as a matter of usage.

Education:  is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research.

Prostitution: is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. Prostitution is sometimes described as sexual services, commercial sex or, colloquially, hooking.

Terrorism: is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence, generally against civilians, for political purposes. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in context of war against non-combatants.

Corruption: In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit, or, abuse of entrusted power for one’s private gain.

Sexual harassment: is a type of harassment technique that relates to a sexual nature and the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Sexual harassment includes a range of actions from mild transgressions to sexual abuse or assault.

Cult: In modern English, the term cult has usually been used in reference to a social group that is defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or by its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.

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