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Manpower training and development is one of the most important
organizational dynamics. It constitute the pivot in which organizational
survival is run. However, many organisations have either ignored it or
treat policy and programmes in Federal College of Education, Zaria with a
view to employees needs and the college needs. Impact of these training
programmes on the skills, experience of the staff, using both primary and
secondary data, the study, shows that, prior to this time before there was
no clear cut, formal and documentation manpower training and
development policy structure in F.C.E . It was in 2008, that a unit was
erected to take care of staffs development Unit. The study also shows
that the training programmes that are majorly emphasized in the college
are rather too academic in nature. This includes the various study leaves,
probationer leaves, and conferences, seminars and workshops. These
training programs as reveals do not address some peculiar training needs
on the Job. On the impact of the training programs,, findings shows that
the various training programmes as available in F.C.E have not impacted
positively in enhancing the skill, knowledge of the staff, their performance
on the Job and services delivery. The ineffectiveness of these programs
has also led to the problem of staff retention in the college, especially
among the highly experienced senior academic staff. However, it was
recommended that the college should emphasized on both on the-Job
and off-the-Job training for staff of the college, also staff training should
be seen as right of every staff, not a privilege as presently been practices
in the college. Added to this, effective strategies should be adopted so as
to properly evaluate the effect and impact of result of whatever training
undergo by staff of the college. Finally, training should not be seen as a
routine activity, but as an important aspect of personal management and
it should be a constant and continuous exercise.



1.0 Background of the study
The role and importance of human resources in the long term
viability of any business or non-profit making enterprises cannot be
overemphasized. Although, other resources, such as financial,
information, physical are also essential, but human resources are virtually
boundless in the potential impact of the organization.
Manpower is the basis of all resources use and it is the
indispensable means of converting other resources to man kind’s use and
benefits. So how well we develop and employ human resources skills is
fundamental in deciding how much we will accomplish as a nation.
Manpower is the pivot of every human institution. Even in the developed
and industrial nations of the world where the use of machines and
technology is at an advanced stage, manpower is still very essential.
Organizations today face many challenges in the management of
their human resources –challenges that ranges from constant changes in
organizational environment, through unmotivated workforce to shortage
of skills manpower even in the face of heavy unemployment syndromes.
In the words of Onah (2003:1), what sets most successful organization
apart is how they manage human resources. In the private sector, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the work force. Without exception, what keeps
executives up at night are decisions about human resources that are
rather difficult and delicate? How to select and develop future leaders;
how to reward good performance; How to control Labour costs, while still
treating people fairly. Those challenges depend on the pressure
organization face. This no doubt required adequate manpower planning,
training and development. There is no doubt that in this advanced age of
development and technological break through, manpower must be
developed to meet the challenges of modern technology. Trained and
well-developed manpower is the essential ingredient for efficiency and
effectiveness in any human organization.
Unfortunately, this days, the overwhelming and pervasive role of
manpower resources in organization seem to be compromise to the
extent of misplacing its role in the achievement of organizational
objectives many organization paid little or no attention to issue of training
and developing adequate manpower for achieving organizational goal or
An essential instrument for achieving organizational objective is the
adequacy and effectiveness of available manpower. Any organization
whether (informal or formal, private government) can only boast of effective operation, if it is bless with adequately well-trained and
developed manpower.
In Nigeria, many organizations (whether government or private,
profit oriented) have been deficient in their operations and the overall
effectiveness due to the type or caliber of manpower they have, Federal
College of Education , Zaria is not an exemption
The Federal College of Education (FCE) Zaria was established to
train teachers at the N.C.E level. They also in collaboration with Ahmadu
Bello University, Zaria train teachers at B.Ed level. To effectively perform
its function, it required well trained developed, professional and dynamic
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Teacher’s education has in the last few decades received attention
in Nigeria. Such cognizance is not unconnected with the recognition by
the Nigerian education planners that no education system can rise above
the quality of its teachers. In order to produce quality and professionally
qualified teachers for the Nigerian educational system, the Nigerian
National Policy on Education (1998:3rd edition) holds that Nigerian
Certificate in Education (NCE) as the minimum entry qualification into the
teaching profession. Institutions designated to provide the required
professional training for teachers at various levels is Colleges of Education, Faculties of Education, Institutes of Education, National
Teachers Institute and Schools of Education in the Polytechnics.
Among these institutions is Federal College of Education (F.C.E.),
Zaria established in accordance with the National policy on Education
with the objective to provide highly motivated conscientious, and efficient
classroom teacher for all levels of our education, encourage spirit of
enquiry and creativity in teachers, help the teachers to fit into the social
life of the community and society at large and to enhance their
commitment to national goals, provide professional background adequate
for their assignment and to make them adaptable the teachers to
changing situations, enhance teacher commitment to teaching profession.
(Senior Staff, Condition of Service Handbook).
To achieve these objectives, the college required skilled and other
qualitative lectures and other supportive staff. This also could be
achieved through an effective and consistence staff training and
development policies and programmes. Although the college has various
staff training policies and programmes these training programmes hardly
have any significant effect on the skill and knowledge and retention of the
staff of the college. It also seem that the issue of staff training and
development is treated with levity and neglect and there is that misconception
of the aim of staff training as it is seen as a tool or means for staff promotion rather than seeing it from an holistic angle as a tool for staff development, maintenance for greater performance and retention Thus, the question is could there be anything wrong with the staff training and development policies and programmes the college? What is
the nature of manpower training and development policy and programs in
the college? And are they relevant to the needs of individual staff and the
College as a whole? Furthermore, how effective are these manpower
training programmes? And what are their impact on the skill, experience
and performance of the staff as well as effective service delivery in the
It is therefore, pertinent to know that these problems could be of a
negative consequence, if they are not adequately addressed. Considering
the important role and mandate of the College, (providing quantitative
teachers for all levels of educational institution in the country), if those
that are expected to train or produce teachers are not well trained and
knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem. Obviously the
achievement of the objectives for which the College was established
might be affected. As the popular Adage says, “a blind man (person) can
not lead another blind man (person) the result is that both of them will fall
into a ditch.
1.2 Objective of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine the manpower
training and development policy in Federal College of Education, Zaria,
as it affects the staff performance and retention. .
Specific objectives include
i. To ascertain the staff training policies and programmes in the
ii. To ascertain if these training policies and programmes are in
consonant with the present college needs.
iii. To examine the effect of the training programmes on the staff as
it affects their skills, experience and quality in general.
iv. To examine the effect on staff performance, retention, as well as
effective Service delivery in the college.
v. To make suggestions as required with a view of ensuring a well
trained skilled and developed manpower in the college.
1.3 Hypotheses

  1. Lack of a clear- cut manpower training and development policy
    objective is responsible for ineffective manpower training and
    development in FCE, Zaria.
  2. Ineffective manpower training and development has no significant
    effect on staff performance and retention as well as effective
    Service delivery in FCE Zaria.
    1.4 Scope and Limitations
    The study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of
    manpower training and development in FCE, Zaria. This was done in
    view to assess its effects on the skill, knowledge, performance and staff
    retention. The time frame of the study is from 1999-2006.
    A major limitation of this study is that other institutions are not
    included in the study. In other words, an extensive coverage of other
    higher institution is not done, due to time and financial implication which
    the researcher might not be able to afford.
    Another limitation was that of difficulty in collecting or having
    access to some data or information relevant to this research work. This
    was due to the issue of confidentially which the public sector was known
    for. However, these limitations do not really affect the content of the
    research work. Notwithstanding if these limitations are avoided or
    eliminated; it could have enriched or added more value to the study.
    1.5 Significance of the Study
    The issue of manpower training and development has become a
    major agenda in public personnel Administration. The reason for this is
    not for-fetched; more public organizations are faced with a lot of
    challenges which requires specialist and professionals to handle. In many
    higher educational institutions in the country, those challenges have become night mire and management of these institutions had spent
    sleepless night on how to catch-up with the global wave or changes
    sweeping across institutions in the world.
    Because of this global change in science and technology, the
    Nigerian policy on education have witness constant transformations.
    School curriculum and course contents are constantly being changed or
    amended to reflect the reality on ground. This invariably brought about
    the importance of re-defining the manpower training and development
    policies and programs, so that staff of these institution will be able acquire
    new skills, knowledge and experience to cope with these changes. This
    will also enhanced their ability to impact this knowledge into their
    students. Thus, the importance of undertaken a study of manpower
    training and development in Federal College of Education, Zaria is
    Although, some studies have been carried out (i.e. Bala, 1992
    Danjuma 1998, Garba 2000, Sani, 2002) none of them has examined the
    training policy on ground in relation to the presence needs in the College.
    The findings in this study will also help the government, the college
    management and management of other higher institutions in policy
    making as regards manpower training and development.
    The study is an academic requirement, as such, it would be of use
    and benefit to researchers (as individual, group and to organization). It will also serve as a reference point for studies, for both under graduate
    and post-graduate students who wish to carryout similar study.
    1.6 Research Methodology
    1.6.1 Research Design
    There are different ways or methods of carrying out a research. In
    the field of social sciences, one or a combination of these methods could
    be adopted depending on the nature and types of research to be
    undertaken. In view of this study, the survey design was adopted.
    Survey method identifies a population of study and from this population a
    representative or sample was drawn for investigation and collection of
    data. This was done through questionnaire, interview and observation.
    Ijaya (2000:22) viewed survey research as “a study which involves
    an investigation on entire population of people or items by collecting data
    from samples drawn from population and assuming that these samples
    are true representatives of the entire population.
    1.6.2 Sources of Data
    There are two major sources of data, which also indicate the types
    of data. They are primary and secondary data. Data were collected from
    these two sources in this research work. a. Primary Data: Primary data, mostly referred to as a first hand data
    due to its originality from the source, was derived from questionnaire
    interview and observation. These three means of sourcing for primary
    data were employed in this research work. The questionnaires were
    drawn and distributed to randomly select academic and non-academic
    staff and management staff of the college.
    The questions were designed to give room for open and close
    ended questions. The close-ended was in a two-way and scaling form.
    The close –ended questions afford the researcher the opportunity to
    control the type of responses desires from the respondents. The closeended
    questions gave us a little control of what we expected from the
    respondents so that, they would not be beating about the bush”. The
    close-ended question does not restrict the respondents on what to say. It
    affords the respondents to say their mind without restriction.
    Face- to- face interview was conducted with some top officials and
    staff of the college. This was made possible through interview schedule
    designed by the interviewer. Also in the course of interview, the
    researcher observed some facilities on ground in the college promises.
    b. Secondary Data: – These data were sourced form official
    documents and publications (i.e. Handbook of condition of services, files
    etc) of FCE, Zaria. Secondary data were also sourced from official
    publications of Federal Ministry of Education, Bureau of Statistics others include, Books, Journals/articles, paper presentations, Newspapers and
    other publications.
    1.6.3 Population and Sample Size
    The population of this study includes all the staff of the institution
    (Academic and non-academic) and the students. Statistic from the staff
    record indicates that there are 304 academic staff and 728 non –
    academic staff. From the non academic staff, 428 were senior staff while
    300 are junior staff. Thus, the college has staff strength of 1032.
    For the purpose
    For the purpose of sampling, the entire staff of the college was
    stratified according to the cadre and nature of work.
    The staff were stratified into academic and non academic and non
    academic staff. The non-academic staff was further stratified into junior
    and senior staff was further stratified into junior and senior staff. Records
    from the college shows that the total number of academic staff was 304,
    while that of non-academic staff was 728, comprising, 428 senior and
    300- Junior staff.
    In other to select the sample, 10% of the population of each of the
    students was selected.
    In view of this, 30 academic staff, 43 senior non academic staff and
    30 junior staff randomly selected thus, the total sample size for the staff is in addition 22 students were randomly, selected to represent the
    study population. Although it might be argued that the student input in the
    study like this might not be necessary, however, the researcher found it
    desirable to include them as respondents, information in the quality of
    lectures and academic activities when is important for this work would be
    gotten from them.
    Thus, the study sample size for the study is 125, including 30
    academic staff, 73 non-academic staff and 22 students respectively. This
    number is believed to be adequate and representation to draw inference
    and generalize on the entire population.
    Table 1.1 Populations and Sample Size
    Staff Population Sample
    Academic 304 30
    Non-academic senior 428 43
    Junior 300 30
    Student – 22
    Total 1032 103
    1.6.4 Method of Data Analysis
    After data has been collected, it is imperative to analyze this data,
    test the relevant hypotheses postulated or questions asked concerning
    the subject of investigation. This is possible using one or combination of statistical tools available in research. All data are raw and until they are
    presented and analyzed, they are of no value. The study made use of
    Tables, Frequency Counts and Percentages in presenting and analyzing
    the data collected of this study.
    1.7 Operational Definition of Key Concepts
     Manpower: This implied the total number of pensionable
    employees of Federal College of Education, Zaria.
     Manpower Training and development: An extensive definition of
    this concepts has been done in chapter two (literature review) of
    this work. However, in this study, manpower training and
    development implied the organisation and co-ordination of
    knowledge, skills, experiences and attitude of the staff of F.C.E in
    view of making them perfect or professional in their various
    schedule or duty. It is aimed at enhancing their ability experiences
    and skills and aptitude for greater performance towards achieving
    the college objective.
     Manpower Training and development objectives can be define as
    those results that the training hopes to achieve. Check chapter three of this work for details of manpower training and development
    objectives in F.C.E
     Manpower needs here implied those shortfalls or deficiency
    identified at individuals staff level, schools or the college as a whole
    which the training programme. This implied the various strategies
    and technologies or designs put in place in the college which are
    directed towards improving or enhancing the knowledge skills,
    experience and aptitude of the workers toward greater
     Effective training and development policy and programs implied the
    achievement of the purpose to which the training policy and
    programs were design: Training policy or programs in this work is
    effective, if it is in consonance with the needs of the individual staff
    and the college as a whole.
     Job performance in this work implied staff increased exhibition of
    skill and experience by staff of the college on their various
    schedules and duties. It implied greater professionalism on the job.
    For academic staff, it implied increase in quantitative lecturing or
    teaching and evaluation of students. To non-academic staff, it
    implied greater skills and experience in the performance of their
  3. labour turnover, here means the rate of which staff come and
  4. leave the college. It implies the rate at which the college lost its
  5. staff especially, highly skilled and experience one’s.
  6.  Service Delivery: This implied the way or rate at which the staff of
  7. the college performance their formal duties. It implied both
  8. increased in Job performance and attitude to work and attending to
  9. worked to the customer.
  10. The major customers of the academic staff are the student. Service
  11. delivery can be measure through their quality of teaching, evaluating
  12. students and their relationships with them. A good teacher is not an
  13. impostor or terror. It is one that is willing to serve his students as anytime.

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