Effect of Instructional Materials on the academic performance in the public primary schools in Bwari Area Council
Price: 1000 Naira (SEMINAR, ASSIGNMENT)
The title of the project topic effect of instructional materials on the academic performance in the public primary schools in bwari area council.The result obtained from chi-square statistical tool shows that there is a significant relationship between instructional material and the academic performance of students. The respondents strongly agree that instructional material effect the academic performance of students in accounting department, this finding is in line with the assertion of (Onyeozu , 2007) that instructional material are resources materials which facilitate teaching and learning. This finding is also consistent with those of Ikerionwu (2000), Adekola(2008) and (Isola, 2010) who concluded that material resources have a significant effect on student’s achievement in each of the subjects when conducted a research on the effects of instructional resources on students’ performance. And base on the hypothesis testing the null hypotheses is rejected whereas the alternative hypotheses is accepted,all the three research null hypothesis for this study: There is significant relationship between the available instructional materials and students’ academic performance, There is significant relationship between the available school facilities and students’ academic performance and The Incompetence of Teacher to Improvise Instructional Material is have no significance effect on Poor Performance of Learners.. the analysis was represented in tabular form for easy understanding and it consist the number of respondents and the corresponding percentage and chi – square was used as the statistical tools used for testing more than two population using data base on two independent random samples. Since it is usually not possible to study the entire larger population of all public primary school in Abuja, the researcher has chosen the public primary schools in Bwari Area Council staff as the studied population in order to find a possible solution to which involve a total of 40 staff.
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (Igiri, C. E., &Effiong, O. E. (2015). According to Abdullahhi (2010) in Igiri, C. E., &Effiong, O. E. (2015, instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process.
Relatively permanent change in behavior is the primary purpose of the teaching-learning process that occurs through experience in the learners’ environment. The desired change cannot manifest without the availability and proper use of instructional materials, school facilities and other needed resources.
Regarding available school resources Ogusanju(1980) emphasized that, quality of education that students receive depends on the availability of an overall school facilities in which teaching and learning takes place. Quality, relevance and access to education can be attained if and only if educational materials are properly available and utilized in an educational institution.
Educational resources are means through which information is effectively communicated from the teacher to the learners. In the school settings, textbooks, all types of buildings(academic and non-academic), equipments, classroom facilities, furniture, instructional materials, audiovisual aids, toilet, computers,library and laboratory materials make up important school facilities that are required for effective learning.
Buckley et al., (2004) states that school facilities enable the teacher to accomplish his/her task as well and help the learner to learn and achieve effectively. Additionally, they emphasized that the availability and proper use of school facilities can affect the interest of the teacher to teach effectively in turn that positively affects student’s academic achievement.
Lawrence (2003) emphasized that the unavailability of school resources negatively affects staff and students motivation. A good school environment and adequate school facility have a significant positive effect on teacher’s motivation and student’s achievement.
Furthermore, O’Neill (2000) described that school facility impacts on student achievement, attendance and teacher retention. Ryonds, et al., (1996) found that a negative impact on student achievement where school facilities. Adequate and quality school facilities are basic ingredients for quality education and to achieve the intended goal of the school program (Khan and Iqbal, 2012). They also strengthen the idea by emphasizing that learning is a complex activity that requires students and teachers’ motivation, adequate school facilities such as standardized buildings and classrooms with their facilities, instructional materials and equipment for child’s development.
Students’ academic performance is the product of evaluation (formative or summative evaluation) after instruction has been passed by the teacher. Students’ academic performance is an aspect of education that has been and still is of great concern to parents, school managers, educational researchers and policy makers in both developing and developed nations (Makori and Onderi, 2013). There are many factors affecting the academic performance of students in Nigeria some of which include peer pressure, students’ poor study habit, examination malpractice, cultism, drug abuse, truancy, poor school infrastructure and instructional materials. Poor quality and inadequate instructional materials and educational facilities in schools are problems the parents, teachers, schools, school administrators, government at all levels and policy makers are responsible for. The resultant effects have been unfolding over the years in Nigeria in terms of continuous poor academic performance of students without prompt intervention by the stakeholders. Facilities provided in schools at all levels are rather inadequate to cater for the need of the ever increasing number of students. Poor quality of teachers and lack of constant training on how to effectively use and manage the available resource is adding to this woe.
Nigeria remains a major defaulter in complying with the UNESCO recommendations that at least 26% of the National budget must be committed to education. The 2009 Federal government budget of N3 trillion has allocated only N183 billion to education. This translates to a mere 6% allocated to education. Osakwe (2009) pointed out that this is still below the UNESCO recommendation. These allocations were not quite adequate, as the institutions had not much to show in terms of rehabilitation for funds made available by the government (Umunadi, 2008).
Most studies that look into the state of instructional resources in schools, rarely do scholars attach poor performance with lack of, or inadequacy of these materials. As the studies above indicate instructional materials are important in teaching and learning and are inadequate in many schools (Kerr, 2003). Although studies in Tanzania (see for example those of Sumra and Rajani, 2006; Hakielimu, 2007; Makombe et al, 2010) have lamented on poor performance, they did not link this situation with inadequate quality instructional resources. These studies are clear that there is a strong link between adequate and quality instructional materials and quality teaching and learning process (Blair, 1998) but have not shown this link with students’ academic performance. Other studies conducted by researchers such as Earthman and Lemasters (1996) have shown that learners who are provided with safe, modern and environmentally controlled situation learn much better and their academic performance are high.
In spite of the importance of instructional materials to academic performance of students, it is observed that most students complain of being taught principles that seem to be abstract in nature. It is on the strength of the above, that the researcher deems it necessary to research so as to highlight the role that instructional materials play in teaching and learning process and also study the problems that are associated with effective application of instructional materials in teaching and learning of public primary schools in Bwari Area Council.