Heart Failure System Using RFID Technology

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Price: 1000 Naira (SEMINAR, ASSIGNMENT)

ABSTRACT

Now-a-days the deaths caused due to the heart failure which have been of major concern. The majority of the deaths caused by heart failures are due to the lack of medical assistance  in  time. This seminar paper gives an insight of a new technology that relates directly to the exploding wireless market place. This technology is a whole new wireless and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) enabled frontier in which a victim’s actual location is integral for providing valuable medical services.

The seminar paper will be demonstrating for the first time ever the usage of wireless telecommunications systems and miniature sensor devices like RFID passive Tags, that are smaller than a grain of rice and equipped with a tiny antenna which will capture and wirelessly transmit a person’s vital body-function data, such as pulse or body temperature, to an integrated ground station. In addition, the antenna will also receive information regarding the location of the individual from the GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) System. Both sets of data medical information and location will then be wirelessly transmitted to the ground station and made available to save lives by remotely monitoring the medical conditions of at-risk patients and providing emergency rescue units with the person’s exact location.               

This seminar paper gives a predicted general model for Heart Failure Alert System. It also discusses the Algorithm for converting the Analog pulse to Binary data in the tag and the Algorithm for Alerting the Location & Tracking Station. It discusses in detail the various stages involved in tracking the exact location of the Victim using this technology.

INTRODUCTION

It is thought to declare convincingly what is the most important organ of our body. Infact every organ has its own importance contributing and coordinating superbly tokeep the wonderful machine the human body functioning smoothly. And one of theprimary organs which the body cannot do without is the heart, 72 beats a minute orover a trillion in a lifetime (Stephen, 1996). The pump house of our body pumping the blood toevery corner of our body every moment, thus sending oxygen and nutrients to eachand every cell (Yu, 2005). Over a period of time, the heart muscles go weak, the arteries getblocked and sometimes because of a shock a part of the heart stops functioning resulting in what is called a HEART ATTACK. Heart attack is a major cause of death and in today’s tension full world it has become very common. Presently there is nomechanism by which a device monitors a person’s heart 24 hours a day, 7 days aweek and gives him instant protection in case of problem (Lin, 2005).

Our primary focus is on people with a history of heart problem as they are moreprone to death due to heart failure. In the 1970s, a group of scientists at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) realized that a handheld receiver stimulated by RFpower could send back a coded radio signal (Chang, 2004). Such a system could be connected to asimple computer and used to control access to a secure facility. This system ultimatelybecame one of the first building entry systems based on the first commercial use of RFID. RFID or Radio Frequency identification is a technology that enables thetracking or identification of objects using IC based tags with an RF circuit and antenna, and RF readers that “read” and in some case modify the information stored in the IC memory (Wu, 2005).

It is estimated that over 20 million deaths all over the world occur due to cardio vascular disorder. Several people are also disabled by cardio vascular disease. The fatal consequence occurs due to delay in providing medical assistance. The severity increases due to deployment of resources for early detection and treatment. In this system, the analog sensors measure the heart rate. An analog to digital converter converts the sensed analog data into corresponding digital data. This digital data is transmitted over a ZigBee module. The heart of patients suffering from fatal heart failures is monitored continuously. The control system accepts and processes the monitored signal. The processed signal is then fed into alert system as a precaution or detection of heart failure to the patients. This seminar paper aims at reduction in number of deaths due to heart attack and heart related diseases.

Fig. 1. Global Structure of Heart Failure Alert System

Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body’s needs. Signs and symptoms of heart failure commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling (National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK), 2010).The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise or while lying down, and may wake the person at night (National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK), 2010). A limited ability to exercise is also a common feature (McDonagh TA 2011). Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure (O’Connor CM, 2005).

Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease, including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrialfibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause (McMurray JJ, 2005). These cause heart failure by changing either the structure or the function of the heart (National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK), 2010). The two types of left ventricular heart failure – heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) – are based on whether the ability of the left ventricle to contract, or to relax, is affected (National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK), 2010). The severity of the heart failure is graded by the severity of symptoms with exercise. Heart failure is not the same as heart attack (in which part of the heart muscle dies) or cardiac arrest (in which blood flow stops altogether). Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, kidney failure, liver problems, anemia, and thyroid disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, physical findings, and echocardiography. Blood tests, electrocardiography, and chest radiography may be useful to determine the underlying cause.

Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the disease. In people with chronic stable mild heart failure, treatment commonly consists of lifestyle modifications such as stopping smoking, physical exercise, and dietary changes, as well as medications (Long, 2019). In those with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or valsartan/sacubitril along with beta blockers are recommended (Yancy CW, 2016). For those with severe disease, aldosterone antagonists, or hydralazine with a nitrate may be used. Diuretics are useful for preventing fluid retention and the resulting shortness of breath. Sometimes, depending on the cause, an implanted device such as a pacemaker or an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended. In some moderate or severe cases, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) (Tracy CM, 2012) or cardiac contractility modulation may be of benefit (Kuck KH, 2014). A ventricular assist device (for the left, right, or both ventricles), or occasionally a heart transplant may be recommended in those with severe disease that persists despite all other measures.

Heart failure is a common, costly, and potentially fatal condition (Metra M, 2017). In 2015, it affected about 40 million people globally. Overall around 2% of adults have heart failure (Metra M, 2017) and in those over the age of 65, this increases to 6–10% (McMurray JJ, 2005). Rates are predicted to increase (Metra M, 2017). The risk of death is about 35% the first year after diagnosis, while by the second year the risk of death is less than 10% for those who remain alive. This degree of risk of death is similar to some cancers. In the United Kingdom, the disease is the reason for 5% of emergency hospital admissions. Heart failure has been known since ancient times, with the Ebers papyrus commenting on it around 1550 BCE (McDonagh TA, 2011).

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW

The prevalence of heart disease including chronic heart failure (CHF) in developing countries such as Iran is increasing and the burden of cardiovascular disease and its consequences are significant (Sahebi A, 2015). Our Center is a center of excellence for cardiovascular medicine and heart failure programs in Tehran, Iran (www.rhc.ac.ir). In this center, more than 9000 heart failure patients are visited annually in outpatient clinic which a third of them are new cases. A study in acute heart failure in this center showed, 167 (58.2%) of 287 patients with acute heart failure were readmitted and 5 (1.7%) patients died during 3 months of follow up.

Currently, chronic diseases have a significant impact on the quality and life expectancy of many people in the world. On the other hand the rising average age of the population engaged considerable financial and human resource of governments in the field of health. One of the most important of these diseases is heart failure due to the prevalence in the population (Sahebi A, 2015; Rosseter, 2011 and Sullivan, 1999).

According to statistics released by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran annually 33 to 38 percent of deaths are due to heart disease. Also 167 cases from thousand cases of heart disease lead to patient’s death (George G, 2006). Based on the results of epidemiological researches in Iran emergence of heart disease occurs approximately 20 years earlier than European and American countries. The average age of the heart diseases patients in Iran is about 55 years, while in Europe and America heart disease patients are 73 to 76 years old, which imposes treatment costs to patients and health care systems and also reduces manpower from active and economic part of society which has significant effects on the economics (George G, 2006; Naghavi, 2006 and Khosravi A, 2008). In this research we decided to have cooperation with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Research and Research and Ethics Committee of the Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, which is a tertiary center for cardiovascular medicine and heart failure programs in Tehran, Iran in order to develop a remote home care system to decrease loads from healthcare system. Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research center is one of the largest cardiovascular hospitals in Asia and the center of Cardiovascular Medicine in the country.

Remote care means automatic health related data transfer to health care centers (Paré G, 2007). This process makes facilities for health centers to monitor greater number of patients, regardless of location restrictions. This system is appropriate specifically for high-risk patients who need urgent care, older people who are at home and those who are in remote areas.

In a study conducted by the Ministry of Health of America which was a remote surveillance programs intended to provide health care to wounded war veterans suffering diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, health related data was collected and sent to the related centers. Results shows promising evidence of a decrease of 21% required repeatedly hospitalizations; re-hospitalizations decreased 19% and also average of 86% satisfaction after registration (Darkins A, 2008).

Although heart failure is not curable but some lifestyle changes (diet and daily exercise) can increase the quality and life expectancy of patients, followed by a continuous and careful monitoring of daily vital signs such as weight, blood pressure, etc. (CDC, 2012). However most of the patients have heart failure in hospitals and also most occupied beds. During a review specified that 21% of heart failure patients returned to the after a period 30 days after discharge. The governments in many developed countries monitor the performance of the heart centers, and the heart centers with high return of discharged patients will be penalized.

When a person is discharged from the hospital Despite having some physical limitations, debilitating effects of the disease, lack of understanding and knowledge, The patient should keep track of his/her health plan (Trojahn MM, 2013). So the empowerment of patients to keep track of their health is very important. Thus heart failure patients can be monitored by creating a comprehensive system of remote home care and heart disease risk classification system. High-risk patients will be specified before worsening their disease symptoms and prevent early death by timely actions, also prevent from repeatedly hospitalizations and decreasing their quality of life (Zhang J, 2009). Hence the advice of many research centers and treatment is caring, supervision, management and distance learning have significant influence on the treatment and control of chronic heart failure patients, thus main purpose of this research is proposing such a system.

Effective management of heart failure patients requires a lifestyle change, such as continuous monitoring of the disease, weight losing and low sodium diet programs. A healthy life style was presented in (Netemeyer), this model indicates that the behavior of any person results from their behavioral control and intention. It is also stated that every person decisions are affected by social norms and their behavior control. This conceptual model has wide use in explanation and prediction of individual behaviors in a way that it is widely used in health literature.

Theoretically proven that changing individual behaviors needs three elements of motivation, ability and stimulus at the same time and in the absence of above elements behavioral changes will not be possible. In most cases, people have low motivation to change their behaviors, thus another purpose of developing the remote homecare of heart failure patient’s system is to increase their motivation and ability by providing right educational self-care hints and also providing timely appropriate messages (Fogg BJ, 2009).

Previous studies have shown that providing better support for patients in the home could have a theatrical effect on the cost and efficacy of healthcare (Myers S, 2006). Such remote self-care systems have been developed to assist CHF patients (Alaoui A, 2003), for example a system named WANDA were developed, The system aimed to help clinicians monitor patients remotely, align with individual lifestyles, aid in decision making by automatically analyzing patients data, and provide flexibility to address the needs of various patient groups (Suh MK, 2011).

The hardware of the presented consists of a RFID-based ring-type pulse/temperaturesensor, a Bluetooth module, and a smart phone. Physiological Sensor, although there isa ring- type pulse monitoring sensor in the market, the measured data are displayed in theLCD and cannot be transmitted out of the ring. In this paper, a RFID wearable ring-typesensor designed by Sino pulsar Technology Inc., Taiwan was adopted, instead. Bluetooth,the data communication between RFID reader and the smart phone is throughBluetooth. HL-MD08A (Bluetooth RS232 Adaptor manufactured by Hot lifeTechnology) is used in the presented system. It supports a wide range of Baud ratesfrom 1.2K to 921.6K bps. Smart Phone, any smart phone which operating system isWindows Mobile 6.1 is suitable for the presented system. The smart phone used inthis system is ASUS P552W with built-in GPS. It supports HSDPA 3.6Mbps/EDGE/GPRS/GSM 900/1800/1900.

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