Importance of Improvisation In Teaching Basic Science In Public Secondary Schools.


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This seminar paper is to focus on the examined the importance of improvisation in teaching basic science in public secondary schools. Teaching in basic science teaching in particular is characterized by use of instructional materials at all levels of education. This is because abstract concepts will be simplified and made real with instructional materials.The main purpose of this study is to mentor the secondary students on the improvisation of unavailable resources when necessary, for effective learning. Specifically, this study aim at to find out the effects resources improvisation on students’ performance in control and experimental Secondary School teaching basic science, find out the extent to which resource improvisation affects students‟ performance in relation to their gender and to find out how resource improvisation affect students’ performance in Secondary School teaching basic science.Effective use of instructional materials enhances the understanding of the students in teaching and learning processes. It was discovered that improvised instructional materials bring the same meaning as compared to the originally produced instructional materials. It is evident from the analysis that, there is no significant difference between improvised instructional materials and originally produced instructional materials when used in the teaching and learning of science.


Education is a major tool for individual empowerment and National development. A National educational system is vital because it produces the personnel that are required to function in various facets of national life and development process. Gray (2001), notes that ―the goals of wealth creation, employment, generation, poverty reduction and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system.‖ Education has been accorded a high rating in Nigeria, and the demand for education is popular because of the desire of members of the society to give their children a better chance in life. The demand for education has become explosive and one which no government can afford to ignore. Education in Nigeria has reached a cross-road that demand a change in direction, a change in our understanding and acceptance of what educational standard and quality are, the high demand of education in Nigeria give rise to the expansion of education.

The development of Basic Science and Technology as a subject area occurred in Nigeria in the late 1960s, and its teaching and learning have since been entrenched in schools. A child they say is the father of a man. The education which the child receives today will shape his understanding and vision of life and this in turn will enable him to play a significant role in the making of himself and in the development of his fatherland. The child learns to perform and improve on the quality of the activities and lifestyle of his forebears, thus, pushing forward the frontiers of the cultural disposition of the people.

Formal Education is put in place to give some necessary and acceptable blending of the old and new societal order, and so positively advance the society. The child is the initial beneficiary of this kind of education and whatever he learns enables him to play defined role in the society. In all nations of the world (Nigeria inclusive), Science and Mathematics are given first class attention due to numerous benefits derived from them. For instance, the knowledge of drugs, diseases (their transmission, control and cure), reproduction, child birth, environmental pollution, food production, number and numeracy , telecommunication, chemicals among many others are acquired trough the study of Science and Mathematics (that is, technology) has led to the manufacture of many products and services computers, electronic gadgets air planes, ships, weapons, automobiles, printing press, electrical appliances, mobile phones to mention a few, are all derived from practical application of Science and Technology.

In 1968, a Committee was formed under a cooperative agreement between the then Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) now merged into the Nigerian Education Research Development Council (NERDC) and the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN).

The Committee produced the first Basic Science and Technology Cumculum (STAN, 1990). The STAN document was far more comprehensive and integrated. It also used the nomenclature for the title of the subject in line with happenings in the developed countries of the world. According to the STAN document earlier referred to a number of questions informed the need for the Basic Science and Technology Curriculum.

Why do we teach science? Is the science we teach appropriate and relevant to the scientific and Educational needs of our children and or our society? There is no doubt that relevance and functionality have become the major consideration for teaching and learning basic science and technology. The consequence of these considerations made the association to design a science that would relate the child to the environment and develop in the child inquisitiveness and skill that relate to the discovery of science concepts and their applications. Every year, primary schools produce graduate who cannot meet up with current science trends in junior secondary school class, especially in the rural setting. This has serious social implications. The root causes of the problems need to be identified so that a solution could be sought for it.

Serious efforts have been made by the Government to improve students in our primary schools in that state. Such efforts include the declaration of free and Compulsory Education to Senior Secondary Level by the present administration. It must not be assumed that all is well with the study of Basic Science and Technology in Primary Schools.

Improvised materials are materials that are used in the absence of the real, original or delicate objects to bringabout the same learning effect that the real or complicated materials would have brought. These materials can beinvented or produced from readily available materials within the environment.

Science instructional materials or equipment are essential, therefore they are needed by teachers todemonstrate and undertake co-operative investigation. Hence science equipment can be improvised frominexpensive materials from the locality in the absence of the original materials. The use of locally producedinstructional materials in the teaching learning situation has many advantages. According to Arhin and Asimah(2006), improvised materials are cheaper to produce or buy because the raw materials are obtained from localsources, present objects and models in either two or three dimensional views. It encourages class participationsince majority of the raw materials can be sourced by the students themselves, motivate learners throughparticipatory activities during production and arouse the interest of the learners because they are made from rawmaterials they see daily in their environment.

A very vital opportunity of using improvised materials for experiments is that, it enables children toparticipate fully in the actual construction of the apparatus and gives them ideas about how such materials work.

Using improvised materials in teaching brings home and clarifies unfamiliar concepts and principles of scienceto students.Concerns about loss, breakages and repairs are minimized because instructional materials are made locallyusing materials commonly found in the environment. It helps in the acquisition of appropriate manipulative skillssince improvised materials can easily be replaced or repaired when damaged. More so, when science teachersimprovise instructional materials for their teaching, their potentials are developed.

The method of teaching science requires every science teacher to provide enough materials in the teaching of science to enable students to learn by using all their senses, since children have different needs that need to be satisfied equally.Therefore, where the schools are isolated or inaccessible, instructional materials can be improvised to enhance science teaching and learning.

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