Level of awareness on the prevention of anaemia among pregnant women PHC dutse Abuja

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ABSTRACT

Anemia in pregnancy is identified by the WHO, as hemoglobin level less than 11g/dl and is divided into three levels of severity, Mild anemia (Hb level, 9 – 10.9g/dl), Moderate level of anemia (Hb level, 7 – 8.9g/dl) and severe anemia (Hb level 7 – 4.5 g/dl) (Margwe, 2015). Iron deficiency anemia is a global public health problem influencing both developing and developed countries. Iron deficiency anemia a major cause of maternal mortality. This was a quantitative, cross-case study. Data was collected from 131 pregnant women. The result of study showed pregnant women have knowledge about iron deficiency anemia similarly have negative attitude and poor practices. The knowledge of pregnant women towards iron deficiency anemia was better, but negative attitude and low practice found. Women should consume iron rich diet.

INTRODUCTION

Anaemia, a low blood haemoglobin concentration, is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries. Globally, anaemia affects 273.2 million people (42.6%) and Africa represent a largest proportion of 84.5 million people which is 62.3% prevalence1. A total of 32.4 million pregnant women of 15-49 years of age worldwide have anaemia at a prevalence of 38.2% whereas in Africa the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women is 46.3% and 9.2 million are affected (WHO, 2015).

More than 50% of global anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency. The main contributing factors to iron deficient anaemia include inadequate dietary intake and absorption, increased iron requirements and excessive iron losses, genetic defects, disease affecting blood cells or blood cell producing organs such as malaria, schistosomiasis, hookworm infection and HIV Infection (Pasricha SR, 2013 and Stevens GA, 2013).

Grand-multiparity, too early pregnancies, too many and too frequent pregnancies, spacing of less than one year, low socioeconomic status, illiteracy, and late booking of pregnant women at antenatal care units are among the known risk factor for development of anaemia during pregnancy (Benoist B de, 2008 and HailuJufar A., 2013). Anaemia during pregnancy may result into pre-term delivery, prenatal mortality, low birth weight and low mental capacity of children (Pasricha SR, 2013).

In rural areas of developing countries anaemia in pregnancy is generally associated with indicators of infections and nutritional deficiencies (Hinderaker SG, 2002), and these are areas where the intervention strategies focus. Iron supplementation in pregnant women improves birth length and birth weight and reduces neonatal mortalities. Screening for anaemia in pregnant women and universal iron supplementation to meet the iron requirements in pregnancy is recommended. This intervention should be implemented in conjunction with measures to prevent, diagnose and treat malaria, helminthiases and schistosomiasis to improve absorption of iron and alleviate loss of haemoglobin (Pasricha SR, 2013). Anaemia interventions are to be delivered at health care centers but the anticipated outcome is not achieved because the problem seems complex with multiple contributing factors, some of which are not part of the strategy. For example access to appropriate dietary requirement and use infection protective gear like insecticide impregnated bed-nets are some socioeconomic factors which are important in anaemia control

Plan (Hinderaker SG, 2002). Knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age may have influence on the outcome of anaemia control during pregnancy.

As per World health organization, anemia is a state in which the quantity and quality of RBCS, or the hemoglobin level, falls beneath a built up cut-off esteem (Organization, 2014). Iron deficiency in pregnancy is distinguished by the world health organization (WHO), as hemoglobin level under 11g/dl and is separated into three levels of seriousness, Mild frailty (Hb level, 9 – 10.9g/dl), Moderate pallor (Hb level, 7 – 8.9g/dl) and extreme anemia (Hb level 7 – 4.5 g/dl) (Margwe, 2015). Press insufficiency sickliness commonly comes about when the admission of dietary iron is deficient for hemoglobin combination. The Iron insufficiency paleness comes about because of dietary inadequacy, loss of iron through dying, or expanded requests amid pregnancy in ladies (Camaschella, 2015).

Moreover, deficiency of iron is a worldwide medical issue influencing both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human well-being as well as social and economic improvement. It happens at all phases of the life cycle, however is more predominant in pregnant ladies and youthful kids (Prakash, Yadav, Bhardwaj, & Chaudhary, 2015). Likewise, iron deficiency main cause of anemia and more common in developing countries. Anemia posing additional burden on health care system. Due to physiological reason female and children are at high risk (Mawani, Ali, Bano, & Ali, 2016). Furthermore, World health organization (WHO) major health consequences of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy consist of poor outcome of pregnancy, physical disability, and cognitive development. Iron Anemia increased risk of morbidity in children and reduced work productivity in pregnant women. Around 20% of maternal deaths lead by iron deficiency anemia. (Organization, 2011).

In a region of Pakistan, a study showed low knowledge and negative states of mind of pregnant ladies towards the routine antenatal examination and government health facilities (Ghaffar, Pongpanich et al. 2012).

Moreover, Regular checkup during pregnancy is essential.

Routine antenatal is a key passage point for pregnant women. Pregnant ladies get a wide scope of wellbeing advancement and preventive wellbeing administrations, including information about healthy practices during pregnancy, nourishing help, and iron deficiency anemia prevention (Ghaffar, Pongpanich et al. 2012).

Othman specified in his article that fitting eating regimen learning is required for pregnant ladies so they can devour balance amount of iron from food and supplement (Othman et al. 2016). Moreover pregnant women attitude and knowledge about iron deficiency anemia and supplements is an important. It includes as a barrier factor or motivation for iron supplements intake (Gowri, Sakthi, &Palanivel, 2017). Balasubramanian emphasis in his article on generating understanding of pregnant women about iron supplementation and health education can grossly reduce the frequency of iron deficiency anemia and thereby prevents anemia related mortality and morbidity (Balasubramanian, Aravazhi, &Sampath, 2016).

Similarly, during antenatal checkup comprehensive nutritional knowledge about iron rich diet and Supplements should be made an integral component. Women should be informed effective nutritional practices and benefits of the iron supplements. In antenatal checkup individual should motivate to increase the consumption of such food those are rich in iron, reduce the consumption of tea and coffee that inhibit iron absorption (Rizvi, 2012). Additionally, a study showed that attitude towards antenatal visits, importance of a healthy diet, and iron and folic acid intake during pregnancy could have a profound influence on their hemoglobin levels (Margwe, 2015). Namazi established in his study that knowledge and practice of pregnant have significance towards iron deficiency anemia (Namazi and Alizadeh 2016). A study concluded by Paula stated that tea consumption should be avoided by pregnant women as it has adverse effect on fetus outcome (e Paula, Shang et al. 2017).

The level of awareness of anemia in Nigeria has been variously studied with no reliable statistics by region though estimates exist. In PHC dutse Abujaspecifically, there are no documented studies on prevalence.

However, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics are routinely put on iron supplementation in their second through to third trimester of pregnancy but the burden of disease remains high as determined by anemia related fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. This study will seek to determine the prevalence of anemia in PHC dutse Abujaas well as its associated etiological factors. The results of this study as well as its recommendations will help put in place policies to effectively investigate and manage anemia in pregnancy and therefore reduce the burden of disease.

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