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The study investigated conflict management strategies and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. Six null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted correlational and factorial research designs. Purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 222 teachers from a population of 352 secondary school teachers. Conflict Management Strategies Questionnaire (CMSQ) and Secondary School Teachers’ Job Effectiveness Questionnaire (SSTJEQ) were used respectively, as instruments for data collection. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance using Population t-test, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. Findings revealed that, teachers’ job effectiveness level in Obubra Local Government Area is significantly high. Findings also revealed that arbitration, dialogue, and effective communication strategies respectively, had a significant relationship with secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness. Smoothing strategy had no significant relationship to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness. The findings also revealed among others that; the four conflict management strategies (arbitration, dialogue, effective communication and smoothing) had a joint significant influence on secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that; secondary school principals should not rely totally on one conflict management strategy as the best for all situations, instead they should learn how to use various conflict management strategies, and apply them in any given conflict situation in their schools.
Every organization, whether formal or informal, has objectives established to be achieved. No organization can reach its ends without a corresponding means. One of the most important means through which any organization can achieve stated objectives is through human resources. These are the major determinants of any organizational success or failure, because they perform managerial functions and the manipulation of other devices, machines or material resources to work accordingly. In the context of the secondary school, teachers are the main human resources needed to implement the secondary school curriculum in order for the goals of secondary education to be realized. On this note, there is need for every secondary school teacher to be very effective in discharging his or her duties in order to improve the quality of students produce, and to boost the manpower of the economy.
Teachers’ job effectiveness refers to the extent to which teachers carry out their instructional and pedagogical duties of teaching and behaviour modification as a means of making learners useful to themselves, and for the development of the society which they belong. Teachers’ job effectiveness is the pivot around which teaching and co-curricular activities of the school revolve. It offers learners the opportunity to get adapted to the school environment for improved academic performance (Owan, 2012). An effective teacher can be judged based on the following indices: having a positive attitude,
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development of a pleasant social /psychological climate in the classroom, having high expectations of what students can achieve, lesson clarity, effective time management, strong lesson structuring, the use of different teaching methods, using and incorporating pupil ideas, using appropriate and varied questioning, proper classroom management, good chalkboard management, use of good disciplinary approaches, proper classroom sitting arrangement, understanding individual differences of learners, high level of punctuality, decent dressing attitudes, good possession or grasp of subject mastery, good record keeping attitudes, effective communication skills, good health practices within and outside the classroom environment, and other good personal characteristics such as honesty, politeness, flexibility, simplicity, trustworthiness, firm and fairness and so on. Teachers’ job effectiveness has been a major issue of concern to the government and other relevant stakeholders. This is seen through the regular workshops, seminars, and other retraining programmes organized for teachers as means of enabling them adjust to the dynamic needs of the society.
In the past, teachers’ job effectiveness in the school system had been hindered by a lot of factors, which resulted in teachers embarking on strikes at various times in an attempt to draw the attention of the Government to their plight. The situation in the past was so bad that teachers’ job, called for sympathy from other professions. It was considered a reproach to take up teaching as a profession, parents were finding it very difficult to release or give their daughters in marriage to teachers. Teachers’ effectiveness was also hindered by the problem of poor salaries. Salaries were not paid, and as when
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due. Teachers were deprived of their promotion and lack of good working environment which affected most teachers’ attitude to work.
Presently, the conditions of service offered to teachers have improved slightly, as it is no longer considered a reproach to become a teacher. This is evident in the sudden influx of people to the teaching profession including those not suitably qualified for the job. For example, the Federal government n-power initiative attracted a lot of graduates from various disciplines such as law, engineering, medicine and so on who were not suitably qualified for the job. According to Avwerosuo (2017), this sudden influx of people into the profession is as a result of slight improvement in the condition of service for teachers; this include relatively prompt payment of teachers’ salaries, increment of teacher’s salaries following the recent minimum wage pronouncement, promotion of teachers in some quarters and building of classroom blocks and few offices being a project recently embarked upon by the state Government (Avwerosuo, 2017).
In Cross River State for instance, there have also been remarkable improvements in terms of prompt payment of primary and secondary school teachers’ salaries. The Government of Sen. Liyel Imoke paid teachers’ salaries regularly and was eventually awarded nationally and the “best teacher friendly” governor in the federation. His successor Sen. Prof. Ben Ayade has continued in the boots of his predecessor by paying primary and secondary school teachers’ salaries on or before 25th of each month. Both administrations provided computer systems of various brands (MSI and HP) to teachers to make them more digital, while fees for such computers were gradually deducted from these teachers’ salaries. This was done to reduce the bulk of buying a new computer by
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teachers which would have affected their livelihood and sustenance since many teachers rely on their salaries for survival.
However, given these recent developments and improvement by the Government and other Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) to improve the standard of teaching profession as well as boost teachers’ effectiveness, one expected every secondary school teacher to be highly motivated and effective in discharging their duties. Unfortunately, this does not appear to be the case in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State, where many secondary school teachers have been displaying unprofessional and unethical attitudes to work.
It has been reported many times that many teachers in Obubra Local Government Area are truant and inconsistent to work, especially those in remote schools of the Area. Many teachers rarely report to school on the first day of resumption, and are often found exhibiting poor attitudes towards: time management, record keeping, punctuality, relationship with others, note writing, discipline of students, teaching the students, evaluation of learners and so on. In fact, many secondary school teachers in remote communities have been observed many times to be lukewarm, lackadaisical, engaging in sexual relationship with senior students, and negligent to duties; consequently, leading to many parents degrading the status of teaching profession. This ineffectiveness by many teachers is unacceptable, given that it has not only tarnish the image of the teaching profession, but can also be inferred to have contributed in some ways, to students’ poor academic performance in classroom and standardized examinations such as WAEC, GCE, NECO, NABATEB, JAMB etc. Secondary teachers’ ineffectiveness could be said
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to have contributed to a lot of conflicts in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area. These conflicts are usually between the school principals and teachers, in the event that the school administrators try to caution some of these erring teachers. Sometimes it occurs amongst teachers, or between teachers and students.
Teachers’ ineffectiveness, cannot be said to be the only cause of conflicts in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area. This is because, conflict in itself is a natural phenomenon that must always occur in any organization. It is a normal feature of the workplace; it occurs in every organization. According to Wilmot and Hocker (2011), conflict is a struggle over perceived incompatible differences in beliefs between two or more interdependent individuals. This may include differences in values, desires for esteem, control, and correctness. Ghaffar (2003), sees conflict as an important and inevitable human phenomenon emanating wherever diverse interests exist. Similarly, Mullins (2005) sees conflict as behaviour intended to obstruct the achievement of some other person’s goals. According to this author, conflict is based on the incompatibility of goals that arises from opposing behaviours. It can be viewed at the individual, group or organizational level.
It can be said from the foregoing that conflicts exist whenever an action by one party is perceived as preventing or interfering with the goals, needs, or actions of another party. Conflicts tend to be associated with negative features and situations which give rise to inefficiency, ineffectiveness or dysfunctional consequences. But in some cases, it can actually stimulate creative problem solving and improve the situation for all parties involved (Ojo & Abolade, 2008). It is quite obvious that the human resources of any
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organization (school) consist of people with diverse cultural, religious, social, political and economic background. This is shown in their attitude to work, temperament and frame of reference, which certainly makes their control often complex for secondary school administrators. These differences ultimately, leads to clash of interest among the personnel, which if not effectively managed, could degenerate into serious conflict situation (Anashie & Kulo, 2014). Conflict could arise among staff in a school setting, between staff and management, students and staff, between the school and the host community, or between trade unions and the government. The secondary and tertiary school levels of education in Nigeria, for example, have witnessed a lot of conflicts, ostensibly due to the divergent perceptions of government and the various unions, or different positions held by personnel in the school. Studies have shown that 80% of conflict situations occur independently of human will (Kharadz & Gulua, 2018).
The consequences of conflicts on the school organization have always been regrettable. Part of the repercussions on the school, is disruption of academic programmes, hostility, stress, anxiety, unnecessary tensions, suspicion and withdrawal from active participation in school activities (Ihuarulam, 2015). It also renders the school environment uncomfortable for serious academic activities. Unresolved conflict, can result in the breakdown of a group. When unaddressed conflict occurs in the school, it reduces teachers’ effectiveness, reduces morale, hamper performance, and increase absenteeism. It leads to increased stress among employees, decreases productivity, and at worst, aggression or violence. This affects the output of the work group and can have a profound impact on the performance of the organization. Conflict, like any other key
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business process, must be managed (Scannell, 2010). According to Anashie and Kulo (2014), if education is to be managed effectively for sustainable peace and economic development in Nigeria, then education of the post primary level should be managed free of crisis/conflict. There is a need for conflict management strategies to be employed by every school administrator (Ihuarulam, 2015).
Conflict management strategies refers to those techniques or approaches that can be used to prevent, control or resolve conflicts. Conflict management strategies are very important to any school because it is through these strategies that negative effects resulting from conflicts can be minimized or controlled. There exist several strategies that could be used to resolve conflict in schools. These include: dominance, compromise, synergy, culture of civility, win-lose strategy, lose-lose strategy, win-win strategy (Anashie & Kulo, 2014); integration, obliging, smoothing, avoidance, mediation (Best, 2000); dialogue, arbitration, conciliation, diplomacy (Crossfield & Bourne, 2018); negotiation, effective communication, accommodating (Rahim, 2005; Ojo & Abolade, 2008); collaborating, competing, harmonizing (Oshionebo & Ashang, 2017); adjudication, collective bargaining, confrontation, problem solving, creation of budget committee, separation device, neglect or silence, clarification of inter dependencies, consultation, boxing the problem, clarification of goals, and prayer (Ihuarulam, 2015). Secondary schools’ principals are therefore, open to various strategies to apply in any given conflict situation in their schools. There is no one best conflict management strategy that may be used in all conflict situations. Different conflicts may require different strategies, with the choice of strategy, depending on the nature of the conflict
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or the parties involved. However, four conflict management strategies were of major concern in this study, they include: arbitration, dialogue, effective communication and smoothing conflict management strategies.
Arbitration conflict management strategy is used in a situation where a neutral party helps groups in conflicts to discuss their difficult issues which allows disputants to ventilate anger and frustration in a free, open and therapeutic fashion (Oboegbulem & Onwurah, 2011). It can also be seen as a process in which a third party, neutral in the matter, after reviewing evidence and listening to arguments from both sides, issues a decision to settle the case. It is also the process by which a peace maker, arbitrator or a peace panel settles the conflict through appealing to the conscience of those in conflict. Members of the panel are usually impartial individuals acceptable to those in conflict (Amoh, 2007). The next conflict management strategy to be discussed is dialogue conflict management strategy.
Dialogue conflict management strategy is a process where groups in conflicts are brought together (face-to face) to express their views on the subject matter. The conflict parties share their feelings and fears, are open to listening to the other parties’ needs, are willing to be changed by what they hear, and are open to the idea of being vulnerable (Oboegbulem & Onwurah, 2011). In dialogue, each party makes a serious effort to take the others’ concerns into his or her own picture, even when disagreement persists. No participant gives up his or her identity, but each recognizes enough of the others’ valid human claims that he or she will act differently toward the other. The goal of dialogue is to develop joint approaches to conflict resolution, as well as improve relationships,
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understanding, and trust between individuals or groups in conflict (Saunders, 2009). The next strategy that was discussed is the effective communication conflict management strategy.
Effective communication conflict management strategy is a strategy where all the necessary information needed by groups are communicated to them in due time, acted upon and provision of appropriate feedback. It can be used to avoid, minimize and manage conflicts when they occur. It is used by both parties in the conflict to say their mind, listen to others, and for apology where necessary. Effective Communication is a strong conflict management strategy because it can be used to avoid many problems that would have engulfed organization. Organization must at all times conduct meeting with all different cadres of their employees. By so doing they would be able to explain organizational policy and also listen to complaints and problems of members of staff. In addition, management should not fold their arms to rumours. Each time a rumour emanates, it must be confronted with relevant facts clearly communicated to all levels of units, departments and organizations (Obi, 2004). The last but not the least conflict management strategy that was discussed is the smoothing strategy.
According to Crossfield and Bourne (2018), smoothing conflict management strategy involves low concern for self and high concern for others. In this strategy, a party tries to absorb conflict by minimizing differences with other parties. This style is associated with an attempt to diminish differences and emphasize commonalities for the purpose of satisfying the needs of the other party. It can be used as a strategy when an individual is willing to make a concession with the hope of getting something in return.
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This style is associated with an endeavour to play down the differences and emphasizing harmony to satisfy the concern of the other party. There is an element of self-sacrifice in this style.
Given the fact that conflicts are inevitable to every school, it implies that staff of secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area, must definitely face conflicts as they relate with another. It also means that secondary school administrators must live with conflicts in their various schools, and it is a necessity for them to reorganize inevitability of conflicts in the school and develop an understanding of the strategies for managing, minimizing and resolving it. The ability and credibility to manage and resolve conflicts in any school depends on the experience of the school administrator and his leadership styles. The onus of resolving such conflicts is therefore in the hands of these staff, especially the administrators (principals). It is based on this background that this study was conducted to examine “conflict management strategies and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State.
1.2. Theoretical framework
This study was based on two theories which include:
- Theory of conflict management by Max Weber, (1906)
- Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom (1964).
1.2.1. Theory of conflict management by Max Weber (1906)
Max Weber (1906) was a German Sociologist. He asserted that the society is an arena of conflict and struggle over resources between dominant and subordinate groups.
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Weber argued that there are many status and groups in a society which possess varying degrees of social power. He believed that power played a role in politics, ethnicity, gender and religion.
He also recognized the importance of economic conditions in producing inequality and conflict in society but included power and prestige as other sources of inequality. Weber defined power as the ability of a person within a social relationship to carry out his or her own will despite resistance from others, and prestige as a positive or negative social estimation of honour.
The implication of this theory to the study is very obvious because in the secondary school system, there is a hierarchy in which authority flows. Members of the secondary school system, just like every other organization can engage in conflicting situations either because of their ethnic differences, perception, or in their struggle for power and aspirations. Most often, teachers conflict amongst themselves, students and their leadership when they are not satisfied with their behaviour. As earlier established, their sudden engagement in conflict with others will lead to low morale, hampered harmony and poor work motivation.
1.2.2. Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom (1964).
The expectancy theory of motivation was postulated by Victor H. Vroom in 1964. Vroom theorized that the source of motivation in Expectancy Theory is a multiplicative function of valence, instrumentality and expectancy. He suggested that people consciously chose a particular course of action, based upon perceptions, attitudes, and
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beliefs as a consequence of their desires to enhance pleasure and avoid pain (Vroom, 1964). Vroom suggests that prior belief of the relationship between people’s work and their goal as a simple correlation is incorrect. Individual factors including skills, knowledge, experience, personality, and abilities can all have an impact on an employee’s performance. The hypothesis is: “If a worker sees high productivity as a path leading to the attainment of one or more of his personal goals, he will tend to be a high producer. Conversely, “if he sees low productivity as a path to the achievement of his goals he will tend to be a low producer.” This theory is based on three variables: Expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
Expectancy can be described as the belief that higher or increased effort will yield better performance. Conditions that enhance expectancy include having the correct resources available, having the required skill set for the job at hand, and having the necessary support to get the job done correctly.
Instrumentality can be described as the thought that if an individual performs well, then a valued outcome will come to that individual. Some things that help instrumentality are having a clear understanding of the relationship between performance and the outcomes, having trust and respect for people who make the decisions on who gets what reward, and seeing transparency in the process of who gets what reward.
Valence means “value” and refers to beliefs about outcome desirability (Redmond, 2010). There are individual differences in the level of value associated with any specific outcome. For instance, a bonus may not increase motivation for an employee who is motivated by formal recognition or by increased status such as promotion.
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Valence can be thought of as the pressure or importance that a person puts on an expected outcome.
Vroom concludes that the force of motivation in an employee can be calculated using the formula:
Motivation = Valence * Expectancy * Instrumentality.
The implication of this theory to the study is that teachers’ job effectiveness, depends on the level of drive and motivation that resides within them (intrinsic) and those from the external environment (extrinsic). Given the fact that conflicts can dampen teachers’ morale, it means that their motivation level will be affected. Therefore, according to this theory, teachers cannot be effective on-the-job, unless their own values from where conflict arose from in the first place, are met. Proper management strategies must be employed by principals of secondary schools to handle conflicts in a manner that will not de-motivate teachers.
Also, different teachers value things differently. These differences in their values may lead to conflict as one teacher imposes his or her own value against the will of another.
1.3. Statement of the problem
In an ideal condition, teachers were supposed to maintain good attitudes towards the teaching and instruction of learners. They were supposed to do this with all amount of effectiveness in terms of having a positive attitude, development of a pleasant social /psychological climate in the classroom, having high expectations of what students can
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achieve, lesson clarity, effective time management, strong lesson structuring, the use of different teaching methods, using and incorporating pupil ideas, using appropriate and varied questioning, proper classroom management, good chalkboard management, use of good disciplinary approaches, proper classroom sitting arrangement, understanding individual differences of learners, proper teaching, high level of punctuality, proper note writing/records keeping and many other such good attitudes. Such effectiveness was also expected to yield positive results in terms of improved academic performance of student and the attainment of set goals.
Unfortunately, this does not appear to be the case in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State, where many secondary school teachers have been observed to be ineffective in performing their duties as manifested in their lateness to school, irregular attendance to classes, lack of self-discipline, poor attitudes towards writing notes of lesson, improper marking of students’ attendance register, and several other unacceptable attitudes that cannot contribute to the attainment of set objectives. In the past, many teachers have attributed their ineffectiveness to be a product of poor motivation, poor facilities/infrastructural supply, poor/late payment of salaries by the government, and so on.
However, in recent times, the Government and other NGOs have made attempts to improve teachers’ effectiveness, by organizing retraining and development workshops for teachers. The government has also improved in terms of quick payment of secondary school teachers’ salaries. Despite all these efforts made by the government and other NGOs to improve teachers’ effectiveness, coupled with the efforts made by external
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supervisors and inspectors to check schools at regular intervals, many teachers in Obubra Local Government Area are still adamant and unwilling to change.
It is as a result of this, that the researcher wonders whether teachers’ ineffectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area, could be as a result of poor conflict management. The problem of this study put in question form is: how does conflict management relate to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area? An attempt to provide answer to this question, made carrying out this study germane.
1.4. Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between conflict management strategies and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. Specifically, this study sought to investigate the:
i. level of secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State.
ii. relationship between arbitration strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
iii. relationship between dialogue strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
iv. relationship between effective communication strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
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v. relationship between smoothing strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
vi. joint influence of arbitration, dialogue, effective communication, and smoothing strategies on secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
1.5. Research questions
The following research questions were posed to guide this study.
i. What is the level of secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness in Obubra Local Government Area?
ii. How does arbitration strategy relate to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness?
iii. How does dialogue strategy relate to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness?
iv. How does effective communication strategy relate to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness?
v. How does smoothing strategy relate to secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness?
vi. How does arbitration, dialogue, effective communication, and smoothing strategies jointly influence secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness?
1.6. Statement of hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
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i. Secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness level in Obubra Local Government Area is not significantly high.
ii. There is no significant relationship between arbitration strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
iii. There is no significant relationship between dialogue strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
iv. There is no significant relationship between effective communication strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
v. There is no significant relationship between smoothing strategy and secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
vi. Arbitration, dialogue, effective communication, and smoothing strategies have no joint significant influence on secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
1.7. Significance of the study
The findings of this study may have practical significance to the government, teachers, pre-service educational administrators, serving administrators, students generally, the society and researchers. They may all benefit from the findings of this study differently.
The findings of this study when placed in government gazette may provide educational policy makers with a useful guide in drawing up policies that may be used in preventing and resolving conflicts in secondary schools and in the entire education
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sector. This may bring peace and help in the attainment of educational goals and objectives in Secondary Schools.
The findings of this study may enable the teachers to identify conflicts management strategies that are very important to resolve their own conflicts with others, or between their colleagues. It may also identify their inconsistencies and provide a better platform for their job effectiveness.
The findings of this study may as a means of education, help pre-service educational administrators to learn about the relationship and the role conflict management plays in managing teachers’ job effectiveness. This may put them in a better position to well inform before their eventual practice.
The findings of this study if appropriately communicated, may serve as an eye opener to serving administrators on the choice of strategy to employ during conflict moments so as not to deteriorate teachers’ job effectiveness. This may enable them become more effective in settling disputes amongst staff for increased performance.
The findings may recommend or suggest ways in which conflict can be avoided or minimized. These suggestions may be applied in any conflict situation in other organizations and within the society. Therefore, the society may benefit from this study through such suggestions as many people may become aware of the various conflict management strategies available, and may apply them in their own private conflict situations.
Finally, the findings of this study may be beneficial to researchers because it may constitute a basis for further research in this area or related areas. It may enable
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researchers to identify research gaps and the areas to focus in their own research. It may help researchers to adopt similar methods to verify the results of this study or conduct similar studies elsewhere. It may also serve as a primary or secondary source of literature to researchers.
1.8. Assumptions of the study
The findings of this study were based on the following assumptions:
i. That the variables selected for this study are measurable.
ii. That the sample selected for this study was a true representative of the population.
iii. That the sample obtained was unbiased.
iv. That the variables of this study were normally distributed.
v. That the results of this study were based on the information provided by the respondents.
1.9. Scope of the study
This study was conducted in 2017/2018 academic session, and was de-limited geographically to include all public secondary school teachers in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. In terms of content, the study was delimited to four conflict management strategies which include: arbitration strategy, dialogue strategy, effective communication strategy and smoothing strategy. These four strategies constituted the sub-independent variables of the study while the dependent variable was secondary school teachers’ job effectiveness.
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1.10. Limitations of the study
A study of this nature would not have been accomplished without some limitations. The limitations encountered from this study include the fact that the study relied on self-rating questionnaires implying some respondents would have overrated themselves or provided information that does not apply to them. Some of the respondents were not interested in the study and as such, they filled the questionnaire haphazardly. This implies that their responses may not be the true position of things in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government area.
The study was delimited to just one local government Area in Cross River state. This means that the results of this study could be different if the study was conducted in another location or on a larger scale. Only a handful of conflict management strategies (four) were studied out of the numerous conflict management strategies that could be studied. Those other conflict management strategies (variables) not studied are extraneous and could pose a threat to the findings of this study.
The results of this study revealed that conflict management strategies explained 13.27% of secondary school teachers job effectiveness as shown in Table 9. The study was not able to explain other factors that contributed to the remaining 86.73%.
1.11. Definition of terms
The following terms were used in the study and as a result, they have been defined for the purpose of clarity and readability. They include:
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Conflict: A conflict is an open clash or an unpleasant situation that occur between two people or opposing groups usually through disagreements arising from differences in views.
Management: Management is the systematic process of unifying and harnessing all available human, time and material resources to aid the attainment of set goals.
Conflict management: This is an effort to control, minimize or cushion the disagreement or clash that has occurred between two parties.
Strategy: A strategy is a technique that can be employed to achieve a goal.
Conflict management strategies: This refers to the techniques that can be adopted to minimize or manage conflicting situations.
Secondary school: This is an institution of learning that develops the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor attributes of the learners as a means of making them better citizens and in preparation for tertiary education.
Teacher: A teacher is a skilful, knowledgeable, and qualified person who modifies the behaviour of learners and acts as a foster parent to them.
Teachers’ job effectiveness: This is an ability of teachers in the workplace to perform all assigned tasks in a manner that will lead to the attainment of intended objectives
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